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1 MRCGP preparation course Written Paper 1 Mark Williams GP Trainer - Selby.

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Presentation on theme: "1 MRCGP preparation course Written Paper 1 Mark Williams GP Trainer - Selby."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 MRCGP preparation course Written Paper 1 Mark Williams GP Trainer - Selby

2 2 WRITTEN PAPER 3 hrs (+additional time for source material- usually around 30 mins) Examiner marked Answers legible, concise and short notes encouraged 12 questions (or more) ~15 mins per question including reading through

3 3 WRITTEN PAPER Combined question and answer booklet May use reverse side Implications –Repetition –Candidate number Answer all questions

4 4 WRITTEN PAPER Four question types –test of general practice literature knowledge (CRQ) –test of evaluation of written material (CRQ) –test of ability to integrate and apply theoretical knowledge and professional values (MEQ) –new formats

5 5 Test of literature knowledge

6 6 TESTS OF LITERATURE KNOWLEDGE Majority of marks for demonstrating understanding of current views on a topic and the general evidence on which they are based Higher marks for quoting sources Higher marks still for including a brief critical appraisal references without understanding is not impressive

7 7 For example:- B.P.H. Alpha blockers are better than placebo 5-alpha reductase inhibitors are better than placebo (understanding of current views on a topic and the general evidence on which they are based)

8 8 Two systematic reviews for alpha blockers and one for 5-ARI Eur Urol 1999 and 2000 (Higher marks for quoting sources)

9 9 High number of patients unaccounted for Considerable number of adverse effects (brief critical appraisal)

10 10 Tests of literature knowledge - examples Discuss the primary prevention of osteoporosis in general practice

11 11 Tests of literature knowledge - examples Evaluate the evidence for the effectiveness of drugs after discharge from hospital following an uncomplicated MI

12 12 Tests of literature knowledge - examples Summarise the available evidence for and against the use of antibiotics in otitis media

13 13 Tests of literature knowledge - examples Other recent questions drugs in the management of chronic asthma recognition of depression methods to help people stop smoking childbirth without consultant obstetricians current thinking on drugs for hypertension

14 14 TESTS OF LITERATURE KNOWLEDGE REVISE COMMON CLINICAL PROBLEMS AND THEMES RATHER THAN CONSECUTIVE JOURNALS

15 15 sources include –BMJ / BJGP –Clinical Evidence –Bandolier, EBM, DTB, Effectiveness Matters –RCGP occasional papers –Guidelines of national status –books! & seminal papers of yrs ago

16 16 Evaluation of written material Each paper has had 3 of these type of questions

17 17 EVALUATION OF WRITTEN MATERIAL analyse audit interpret the results - power of studies, p values, confidence intervals, NNT, odds ratio, sensitivity, specificity and predictive value –no calculations required but you must understand what the terms mean

18 18 EVALUATION OF WRITTEN MATERIAL apply results to a clinical scenario apply EBM approach to clinical scenario: question / search / appraisal / application critically appraise presented material, a clinical study, systematic review, guidelines

19 19 CRITICAL APPRAISAL Recognising the main issues raised. Commenting on study design. Discussing the implications and practical application of the results to general practice.

20 20 COMMENTING ON STUDY DESIGN

21 21 Study design Does the paper address a question relevant to your practice? Where did the research take place and who are the authors? Do they have a vested interest?

22 22 Study design What type of study and is it appropriate? How were subjects / controls selected? Were they randomised; if so, how? What were the outcome measures? Are they clinically relevant? Do the sample numbers appear to be appropriate?

23 23 Study design - results Are all the subjects accounted for? How are the results presented? Is the statistical analysis present and appropriate?

24 24 Study design- conclusions Are the conclusions reasonable in the light of the results? Do the authors address the limitations of the study? Are the results believable?

25 25 Study design Concurrence with other studies Concurrence with own experience Implications for me

26 26 Checklists eBMJ –editors checklist –peer reviewers checklist –statisticians checklist –qualitative research checklist –drug points checklist –economic evaluation

27 27 Checklists (qualitative research) (RCT/Consort)

28 28 Checklist - CONSORT statement CONsolidated Standard for Reporting Trials Chicago published 1996

29 29

30 30 IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE Personal Patient Management Practice Policies Practice Organisation Practice Finances Work Of PHCT Members Referral Patterns Prescribing Contracts / Purchasing / Commissioning Consultants & Other Hospital Staff District Resources E.G.. Pathology Own Workload / Free Time Society As A Whole

31 31 Implications for practice - 4S study PPM- case finding/education/compliance PP- guidelines for doctors and nurses PO- impact on apts., lipid and LFT measurement PF- use of staff; special clinics; help from reps? R- inc.. awareness may inc.. referral for ETT & angio Rx inform PCT CPC- inc.. angios; dec mortal; dec. MI; dec emerg.admiss. DR- path lab WL- dec no of MI; (early a.m.) inc. workload in total SOC- dec. cardiac morbidity and mortality

32 32 Problem-solving questions

33 33 PAPER ONE -problem solving questions Complex situations or difficult patients - no right or wrong answers Answers will be evaluated for grasp of CONSTRUCTS

34 34 Problem solving questions Read question carefully - answer what is asked Think broadly but realistically Avoid jargon and cliché - a good tip is to give examples (e.g. I.C.E. In M.S.) More marks for management of problem than factual knowledge

35 35 THE EXAMINERS LOOK FOR A DIVERSITY OF APPROACH:- Detailing a range of options and selecting the most appropriate, justifying selection with reference to the literature. Considering experiences and circumstances other than those personally experienced. Showing consideration for patients health beliefs and feelings, relatives, co-workers and self. Awareness of non-medical aspects of the problem.

36 36 A DIVERSITY OF APPROACH:- Detailing a range of options and selecting the most appropriate, justifying selection with reference to the literature. Considering experiences and circumstances other than those personally experienced. Showing consideration for patients health beliefs and feelings, relatives, co-workers and self. Awareness of non-medical aspects of the problem.

37 37 A DIVERSITY OF APPROACH:- Detailing a range of options and selecting the most appropriate, justifying selection with reference to the literature. Considering experiences and circumstances other than those personally experienced. Showing consideration for patients health beliefs and feelings, relatives, co-workers and self. Awareness of non-medical aspects of the problem.

38 38 A DIVERSITY OF APPROACH:- Detailing a range of options and selecting the most appropriate, justifying selection with reference to the literature. Considering experiences and circumstances other than those personally experienced. Showing consideration for patients health beliefs and feelings, relatives, co-workers and self. Awareness of non-medical aspects of the problem.

39 39 PAPER ONE -problem solving questions Andrea Bachelor, 26, presents with a vaginal discharge. How do you arrive at a diagnosis? What makes a partners meeting a success?

40 40 PAPER ONE -problem solving questions Norman Griffiths is an introspective 47 yr old man who suffers from long-standing fatigue. He tells you he has seen a television documentary suggesting that the mercury in amalgam dental fillings is toxic. He is wondering whether to have his fillings removed, and asks you for your views. Describe your thoughts

41 41 IMPLICATIONS OF MARKING SCHEME Broad impressions count. Layout and presentation important. Relatively small differences in quality of content or presentation can make a real difference. Relatively easy to get bulk of marks up to pass level.

42 42 Time spent vs marks gained

43 43 Skeletons

44 44 CONSULTATION BEHAVIOUR EXPLORE patients knowledge, ideas, concerns, expectations. EXPLAIN symptoms and signs, diagnosis and prognosis. CONSIDER treatment options. CONSIDER patients preference, involve patient in management plan.

45 45 CONSULTATION BEHAVIOUR Presenting Problems Continuing Problems Help Seeking Behaviour Opportunistic Health Promotion

46 46 TREATMENT OPTIONS DO NOTHING –Follow up at patients discretion or formally arranged. DO SOMETHING –Discuss, negotiate, counsel, advise. –Discuss other management options, obtain implied or informed consent. –Prescribe drug and / or appliance. –Arrange or carry out procedure. – Follow up.

47 47 REFERRAL OPTIONS WITHIN PHCT SECONDARY CARE –In patient, out patient, domiciliary visit, pathology, radiology, physiotherapy, day hospital, occupational therapy. –Consider NHS / private, local / regional / national, PCGs. SOCIAL SERVICES –Social worker, day centre, meals on wheels, home helps, part III accommodation, disabled parking badge, welfare benefits, citizens advice.

48 48 REFERRAL OPTIONS OTHER AGENCIES –Self help groups, voluntary groups, local and national hospice movement, Marie Curie Foundation, WRVS. ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES

49 49 IN A CONFLICT SITUATION AGREE DISAGREE REFER NEGOTIATE COUNSEL EDUCATE

50 50 GIVING BAD NEWS ANXIETY –What are the the patients fears and worries? KNOWLEDGE –How much does the patient know and understand already? EXPLANATION –Diagnosis, prognosis, treatment and follow up (in terms the patient understands). SYMPATHY SUPPORT FOLLOW UP

51 51 DEALING WITH ANGER AVOID CONFRONTATION. FACILITATE DISCUSSION. VENTILATE FEELINGS. EXPLORE REASONS FOR ANGER. CONSIDER REFERRING OR INVESTIGATING. APOLOGISE (IF APPROPRIATE).

52 52 THE INFINITE POTENTIAL OF THE CONSULTATION- I HISTORY- ideas, concerns, expectations; physical, psychological, social EXAMINATION DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS INVESTIGATIONS FORMULATE MANAGEMENT PLAN WITH PATIENT +/- FAMILY ARRANGE HELP - family, PHCT, social services, voluntary organisations REFER

53 53 THE INFINITE POTENTIAL OF THE CONSULTATION- contd PRESCRIBE ANTICIPATE FUTURE PROBLEMS PREVENTION / HEALTH PROMOTION FOLLOW UP LIAISE WITH OTHER AGENCIES

54 54 SKELETONS THE INFINITE POTENTIAL OF THE CONSULTATION NOW SOONFUTURE HISTORY EXAMINATION DIFF.DIAG. INVEST. MAN.PLAN HELP REFER PRESCRIBE ANTICIPATE PREVENT. FOLLOW UP LIAISE AUDIT

55 55 BUZZ WORDS DOCTOR-PATIENT RELATIONSHIP –DEPENDENCE, CONTROL, MANIPULATION, COLLUSION, TRANSFERENCE, HEART-SINK DOCTOR –ELICITING, FACILITATING, EMPATHISING, COUNSELING, OPEN / CLOSED QUESTIONS, REFLECTED ANSWERS, AUTHORITARIAN, REJECTING PATIENT –AUTONOMY, INVOLVEMENT, VENTILATION OF FEELINGS, GUILT / BLAME, LIFE EVENTS, COMPLIANCE, SOMATIC FIXATION, SELF HELP GROUPS

56 56 TRIADS PHYSICAL, PSYCHOLOGICAL, SOCIAL HISTORY EXAMINATION, INVESTIGATION IMMEDIATE, SHORT TERM, LONG TERM PATIENT, FAMILY, COMMUNITY CULTURE, STATUS, IMAGE DOCTOR, PARTNERS, PHCT IDEAS, CONCERNS, EXPECTATIONS

57 57 New Format peak flow chart family tree letter from consultant fill in the gaps MCQ Extended matching item

58 58 EXAMPLES Mrs Dara Thakerar, a 35-year-old teacher consults you with headaches. How would you assess her problem?

59 59 Quantitive systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing antibiotic with placebo for acute cough in adults Main outcome measures: –Proportion of subjects with productive cough at follow up (7 – 11 days after consultation with general practitioner); –proportion of subjects who had not improved clinically at follow up; –proportion of subjects who reported side effects from taking antibiotic or placebo.

60 60 The above reading is the title and part of the summary of a recently published systematic review. Critically appraise the choice of outcome measures given above and evaluate possible alternatives

61 61 We included studies of patients aged greater than 12 years who were attending a family practice clinic, community based outpatient department, or an outpatient department attached to a hospital. We included patients who complained of acute cough with or without purulent sputum that had not been treated in the preceding week with antibiotic. Patients with chronic obstructive airways disease were excluded. The included studies were prospective trials in which antibiotic was allocated by formal randomisation or quasi- randomisation, such as alternate allocation to treatment and placebo groups. Only placebo controlled trials were included; comparative studies between different classes of antibiotics were excluded. Categorical and continuous outcomes were reported in the randomised controlled trials; we concentrated on the three most commonly reported outcomes: the proportion of subjects reporting productive cough, the proportion of subjects who had not improved clinically at re- examination, and the proportion of subjects who reported side effects from taking antibiotic or placebo.

62 62 Comment of the inclusion and exclusion criteria shown above.

63 63 EXAMPLES In conducting such a review where should authors search for data?

64 64 EXAMPLES The Boldison family of five has had twelve out-of-hours visits during the last month. What issues does this raise?

65 65 EXAMPLES What are the challenges of implementing clinical governance within a Primary Care setting?

66 66 EXAMPLES Alison Lippett, one of your practice nurses, asks whether the practice will support her in undertaking a nurse practitioner course. What issues does this raise?

67 67 EXAMPLES How does the evidence contribute to the management of sore throats in Primary Care

68 68 "There are people who strictly deprive themselves of each and every eatable, drinkable and smokeable which has in any way acquired a shady reputation. They pay this price for health. And health is all they get out of it. How strange it is." Mark Twain What dilemmas does this quotation suggest for health promotion in modern Primary Care?


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