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Questions to be asked when planning A Curriculum or A Course DR.MOHAMMED O. AL-RUKBAN Assistant Professor And Consultant of Family Medicine Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Questions to be asked when planning A Curriculum or A Course DR.MOHAMMED O. AL-RUKBAN Assistant Professor And Consultant of Family Medicine Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Questions to be asked when planning A Curriculum or A Course DR.MOHAMMED O. AL-RUKBAN Assistant Professor And Consultant of Family Medicine Department of Family and Community Medicine College of Medicine King Saud University

2 Introduction If any body asked to plan a course, he will depend on: If any body asked to plan a course, he will depend on: Common sense. Common sense. His perception of the subject which he is teaching. His perception of the subject which he is teaching. The way in which he was educated himself. The way in which he was educated himself. Current teaching practice elsewhere. Current teaching practice elsewhere.

3 TEN Questions to ask when planning a course or curriculum BY R.M. Harden Medical Education 1986, 20(4):

4 1) What are the needs in relation to the product of the training program? The need to produce doctors to serve the public accompanies two others in any medical school – the production of teachers and of researchers. The need to produce doctors to serve the public accompanies two others in any medical school – the production of teachers and of researchers. Do all doctors need to be trained in the skills required for carrying out research in their own area of practice? Do all doctors need to be trained in the skills required for carrying out research in their own area of practice? How should these three needs be balanced? How should these three needs be balanced? Training needs analysis is a process of both an extensive and intensive study of product requirements. Training needs analysis is a process of both an extensive and intensive study of product requirements.

5 A number of approaches may be used to identify needs as a step in curriculum planning: A number of approaches may be used to identify needs as a step in curriculum planning: The wisemen approach. The wisemen approach. The Delphi technique, a method relying on the judgment of an expert panel of 'wise men', has been used in curriculum planning to obtain a consensus opinion. (Miller, 1974). The Delphi technique, a method relying on the judgment of an expert panel of 'wise men', has been used in curriculum planning to obtain a consensus opinion. (Miller, 1974). A study of errors in practice. A study of errors in practice. Critical incident studies. Critical incident studies. 1) What are the needs in relation to the product of the training program?

6 Task analysis of established practitioners. Task analysis of established practitioners. Analysis of morbidity and mortality statistics. Analysis of morbidity and mortality statistics. Study of star performers. Study of star performers. Analysis of existing curricula including syllabi and examinations. Analysis of existing curricula including syllabi and examinations. Views of recent graduates. Views of recent graduates. In many countries, the answer to this question is already specified in general terms by government and by professional bodies. In many countries, the answer to this question is already specified in general terms by government and by professional bodies. 1) What are the needs in relation to the product of the training program?

7 2) What are the aims and objectives? A medical school may decide that its major aim is: To produce doctors who are able and motivated on qualification to meet the community's needs while also being capable of continuing their education. A medical school may decide that its major aim is: To produce doctors who are able and motivated on qualification to meet the community's needs while also being capable of continuing their education. The decision might be taken: To produce basic doctors who are unable to work in any branch of medicine without further formal vocational training as postgraduates. The decision might be taken: To produce basic doctors who are unable to work in any branch of medicine without further formal vocational training as postgraduates.

8 The curriculum responds to the needs of the community by explaining what the product will be able to do by the time he/she has successfully completed the programme. The curriculum responds to the needs of the community by explaining what the product will be able to do by the time he/she has successfully completed the programme. Another approach which may be an appropriate alternative to aims and objectives is competence- based. Another approach which may be an appropriate alternative to aims and objectives is competence- based. Not all needs may be reflected in the aims and objectives of the course or curriculum. Not all needs may be reflected in the aims and objectives of the course or curriculum. Some needs may be more appropriately considered in relation to other courses or other phases of a vocational training programme. Some needs may be more appropriately considered in relation to other courses or other phases of a vocational training programme. 2) What are the aims and objectives?

9 ObjectivesNeeds

10 The taught Curriculum The declared Curriculum The learned Curriculum 2) What are the aims and objectives?

11 Content gains admission in a course by satisfying any of four criteria: Content gains admission in a course by satisfying any of four criteria: It directly contributes to the course objectives. It directly contributes to the course objectives. It is a 'building block' which equips the students with skill or knowledge needed to tackle a later part of the course. It is a 'building block' which equips the students with skill or knowledge needed to tackle a later part of the course. It allows students to develop intellectual abilities such as critical thinking. It allows students to develop intellectual abilities such as critical thinking. It aids the understanding of other subjects on the course. It aids the understanding of other subjects on the course. 3) What content should be included?

12 4) How should the content be organized? Should the basic sciences provide a foundation for the study of medical disciplines followed finally by disordered function of the body? Or is it better to work back from disordered function, explaining it in terms of deviation from the normal? Should the basic sciences provide a foundation for the study of medical disciplines followed finally by disordered function of the body? Or is it better to work back from disordered function, explaining it in terms of deviation from the normal? Should subjects be covered in a particular order? For example, should psychiatry be introduced before, during or after the study of general medicine? Should subjects be covered in a particular order? For example, should psychiatry be introduced before, during or after the study of general medicine? Which teachers or departments should be responsible for covering each subject? Which teachers or departments should be responsible for covering each subject?

13 Organizational frameworks: The system -based approach: Students visit each system only once in their undergraduate education. Visit each system several times: In phase 1, students learn about normal structure function and behaviour (basic science) in relation to the systems. In phase 2, they learn about abnormal structure function and behaviour (pathological sciences) in relation to the systems. In phase 3, they learn about the clinical applications of their previous learning (practice of medicine). 4) How should the content be organized?

14 Spiral curriculum: As the student moves on through different experience there is value in re- visiting previous learning to re- explore and extend it. 4) How should the content be organized?

15 5) What educational strategies should be adopted? The term educational strategy implies the approach taken to the conduct of the educational programme. The term educational strategy implies the approach taken to the conduct of the educational programme. SPICES model for curriculum planning: SPICES model for curriculum planning: Student-centered/ teacher-centered. Student-centered/ teacher-centered. In a student-centered approach students can choose when they will study, their pace of study, the method of study and what they will study. In a student-centered approach students can choose when they will study, their pace of study, the method of study and what they will study. Problem-solving/information-gathering Problem-solving/information-gathering Integrated (multidisciplinary)/specialty (discipline). Integrated (multidisciplinary)/specialty (discipline). Community-based/hospital-based. Community-based/hospital-based.

16 Elective/standard Elective/standard In elective programmes, students have a small core and for the remainder of the time choose which aspects of the subjects, or even which subjects, they wish to study. In elective programmes, students have a small core and for the remainder of the time choose which aspects of the subjects, or even which subjects, they wish to study. Systematic (planned)/apprenticeship. Systematic (planned)/apprenticeship. 5) What educational strategies should be adopted?

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18 6) What teaching methods should be used? To select the most appropriate teaching method to achieve the desired student outcomes. To select the most appropriate teaching method to achieve the desired student outcomes. Student grouping: Student grouping: Whole class teaching; Whole class teaching; Classes divided into smaller groups of seven or eight students; or Classes divided into smaller groups of seven or eight students; or Individualized learning where students work on their own. Individualized learning where students work on their own.

19 Teaching methods (the choice of tool): Teaching methods (the choice of tool): Slides, Slides, Audiotape, Audiotape, Film, Film, Videotape, Videotape, Overhead projector, Overhead projector, Printed text, Printed text, Computers, Computers, Simulators, Simulators, Models, Models, Exhibitions and patients, or/and Exhibitions and patients, or/and Computer- assisted learning (CAL). Computer- assisted learning (CAL). 6) What teaching methods should be used?

20 The well-prepared, dynamic lecture is effective and often the best use of available resources, especially if the class size is large. The well-prepared, dynamic lecture is effective and often the best use of available resources, especially if the class size is large. The educational value of a method is dependent as much on how the method is used as on the choice of method. The educational value of a method is dependent as much on how the method is used as on the choice of method. The choice of method should reflect: The choice of method should reflect: The course aims and objectives; The course aims and objectives; Class size; Class size; The availability of local facilities; and The availability of local facilities; and Staff experience in the various techniques. Staff experience in the various techniques. 6) What teaching methods should be used?

21 7) How should assessment be carried out? The curriculum instructs teachers in what to teach; the exam. Instruct students in what to learn. The curriculum instructs teachers in what to teach; the exam. Instruct students in what to learn. (Melnick D, 1991) (Melnick D, 1991) The assessment strategy should be developed at the planning stage. The assessment strategy should be developed at the planning stage. Both the student and the course should be assessed. Both the student and the course should be assessed. Assessment techniques: Assessment techniques: Multiple choice questions Multiple choice questions Essay questions Essay questions Short answer questions Short answer questions Patient management problems Patient management problems Modified essay questions Modified essay questions Oral examinations Oral examinations Traditional clinical examinations Traditional clinical examinations Objective structural clinical examinations Objective structural clinical examinations Reports by tutors or supervisors Reports by tutors or supervisors

22 8) How should details of the curriculum be communicated? Details of the curriculum have to be communicated to staff responsible for teaching and to the students for whom the curriculum has been designed. Details of the curriculum have to be communicated to staff responsible for teaching and to the students for whom the curriculum has been designed. Most commonly this is done through syllabi and timetables. Most commonly this is done through syllabi and timetables. The most existing is the use of concept mapping. The most existing is the use of concept mapping. Another approach is the presentation of the aims and objectives of the courses. Another approach is the presentation of the aims and objectives of the courses. Study and tutor guides provides an important curriculum information source for students and tutors. Study and tutor guides provides an important curriculum information source for students and tutors.

23 9) What educational environment or climate should be fostered? Educational Environment May have profound effects on the students' behaviour and performance and on the outcome of the curriculum. Educational Environment May have profound effects on the students' behaviour and performance and on the outcome of the curriculum. Does the environment encourage scholasticism, propriety, social awareness and cooperation between students? Does the environment encourage scholasticism, propriety, social awareness and cooperation between students? Using available instruments, to measure the climate of the educational environment in an institution. Using available instruments, to measure the climate of the educational environment in an institution.

24 10) How should the process be managed? Who is to be responsible for planning, implementation and monitoring? Who is to be responsible for planning, implementation and monitoring? How can change or innovation be brought into the curriculum? How can change or innovation be brought into the curriculum? What is the role of the head of department, the course teachers and any curriculum or course committee that has been established? What is the role of the head of department, the course teachers and any curriculum or course committee that has been established? Who should be represented on the committees? Who should be represented on the committees? What is the role of the students themselves in the management process? Should they be represented on any course or curriculum committees? What is the role of the students themselves in the management process? Should they be represented on any course or curriculum committees?

25 Conclusion Hardens Ten questions is an essential tool for course planning

26 QQQQQ???


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