Presentation on theme: "Lynne Hughes-Guy Ramesh Mehay"— Presentation transcript:
1 Lynne Hughes-Guy Ramesh Mehay Group GamesLynne Hughes-GuyRamesh Mehay
2 Aims of this Session Why Use Games How do you run a game? How do you build it into a programme?What types of gamesExamples of the greatest hitsPitfallsThe bookletHow do you run one – how, methods of reflecting, encouraging participationPitfalls – why games don’t work!
3 The Life Cycle of a Group Group Stage(Adapted from Woodcock (1979)CharacteristicsThe Underdeveloped StageTask orientatedPoor listening skillsLow level of involvementLeader, Individuals conformThe Experimenting StageGroup realises difficultiesWilling to tackle themThe Consolidating StageOpen & Trusting ApproachMore structuredThe Mature StageFlexibilityImproved RelationshipsTrust, Openess, Honesty, Cooperation & Constructive ConfrontationWoodcock actually did work on Team Development, but the principles can be applied to groups too.Underdeveloped GroupOften there is a leader who seems to be making all the decisions. Individuals tend to conform and the work is often not equally shared. Feelings are often not dealt with as they are often not seen appropriate to the task orientated workplace.The Experimenting Group – realise that problems exist and will be more willing to review processes and operations.The Consolidating Group – more open and trusting of each other and therefore look to each other in resolving issues. Start devising rules and procedures for working to which everyone seems committed.More structured in the sense that the task is clarified, objectives set, information collected, options considered and a plan made. Finally ending in evaluation and considerations of improvements for the future.The Mature Group – adapt to changing needs of the group or of individuals….often leading to improved relationships.Ref.Woodcock M, (1979) Team Development Manual, Aldershot, Gower
4 Why Use Games EDUCATIONAL GROUP DYNAMICS Games are fun Experiential learningSafe environment (& Receptiveness)Flexibility & RelevancePromotes changeGROUP DYNAMICSInvolvementPromotes cohesivenessInterpersonal skillsMotivatesEncourages responsibilityFramework & StructureEDUCATIONALGames are fun – this makes them an enjoyable way of learning. We play as children and many of us continue to carry this on in our adult lives as leisure activities. Leisure activities are fun, which is why people participate, and there is no reason why we cant adopt this into the educational process.Experiential learning – By participating in games, we actually promote learning by experience (first hand experience) - unlike lectures, where you are learning from the experience of another (ie second hand learning).Safe environment – is more likely to reduce anxiety. Such a fun atmosphere means that participants are more likely to hear what is being said and reflect on it (as opposed to being frightened and defensive). Not only that, but it provides an opportunity whereby people can practise skills and make mistakes without having to pay the cost of making those same mistakes in the real world.Flexibility & Relevance – Same games used by different groups will yield different results. That makes them extremely adaptable to different groups. Such flexibility also means that games are often relevant to the group who are playing them….this engages co-operation and receptiveness.Promotes change – Because participants are actually experiencing the skills (and experimenting with them), they are more likely to use them in the real world than compared to a lecture advising on the same change behaviour! Changes can be of two types – in themselves, or in their relationship with others.GROUP DYNAMICSInvolvement – Games involve the activity and a discussion afterwards. People are different, some like activity whilst others like to reflect (Honey & Mumford learning styles), which means different parts of the game will attract different people. Games encourage the involvement of all participants….even the shy ones. Part of that is due to the safe environment too.Promotes Cohesiveness of the group – hence participation in games, more communication and the likelihood of change behaviour.Builds interpersonal skills – encourages communication that is EFFECTIVE (NB an effective communication occurs when a person receives the message that was intended by the sender)Motivates the group – If a group appears to be flagging in the middle of a day release course, energisers can get them motivated again and keep their concentration in focus.Encourages responsibility – games encourage the group to take responsibility for a variety of tasks….making them more self reliant and less dependant on the facilitator who they often regard as the “knower of all knowledge”. In addition, they promote self confidence too.Framework and structure – games offer a framework and structure to group experiences (something ordinarily difficult to do!) hence promoting rapid deep learning.
5 Running the Game Game Preparation - homework (game selection, practicalities)The Activity- giving instructions- allocating roles- ground rules- playing the gameReflection and Discussion- importance of discussion- phases of discussionReview You Facilitator RoleGame Preparation – not be taken to lightlyHomework -Game selection - Assess needs of the group. Tailor game to the needs.Practicalities - Look at time, place and resources – enough time (not to be rushed, otherwise benefit lost), a place where they can shout and scream if they want, and adequate resources. Look at the group you are dealing with – different age groups use games differently and so you will need to be flexible. Also, think of any participants with special requirements eg a disability ……you don’t want to exclude anyone (it’s not nice and can be quite scarring!). Prepare yourself mentally…may be do a dummy run?The activityGiving Instructions - clear instructions need to be given. If simple, verbal okay. If complicated, best to augment with written advice. Check understanding.Allow asking of questions for clarification.Allocating Roles - If the group is too large for the game, split it up. Often, it is quite interesting to see subgroups play the same game! May need to appoint a reader or scribe. If appointing people, best to say something like “split into 3’s, decide who is A, who is B and who is C”. Once they have done that, then give further instructions eg”A will be the patient, B the doctor “ etc etc. This avoids arguments in decision making if the choice was at the hands of the participants.Appoint a reporter or scribe as necessary….volunteer or designate, not the same participants at each session…rotate, avoid behavioural stereotypes eg women writer, man reporter!Ground Rules – remind them of group rules…more on this laterReflection & DiscussionImportance - make sure there is enough time for the discussion. Never rush it. It is as important as the activity itself and often is the vital factor in achieving consolidation of learning. See next slide for what sorts of things to cover.Reviewing Your Facilitator Role – how did the game go. Any skills you feel you need to brush up on eg ?facilitation, active listening, reflection etc etc
6 Reflection/Discussion 4 thingsPhase 1 – expression of feelingsPhase 2 – thoughtsPhase 3 – planning for further actionPhase 4 – evaluate the gamePhase 1 – expressing feelings - what bits they enjoyed, what bits they were not too fond ofPhase 2 – thoughts – observations (?observers), what did they learn?, evaluate performance of skills (how did they do?)Phase 3 – planning further action – consider applications of the game to everyday life, what are they planning to do with what they have learnt ie what changes will they make when back in the real world (transfer of insights & skills from the game to real life situations), realistic goals, reporting back at a later date to see if change consolidated?Phase 4 – evaluate the game – any improvements?
7 Encouraging Participation Make it FunBuild trust- ground rules- avoid exlusion games- feedback (give & take)- acceptanceParticipants feel valued- being listened to- democratic style ofleadershipFacilitator as a modelFacilitator’s personal qualitiesMake it fun – right from the beginning, because it helps to get the game going and gets participants involvedBuild trust –Establish ground rules – The participants may have worrying issues that may prevent them from yielding all. Ground rules can help reassure them and stop them from being to scared to get involved. However, remember, ground rules are best made after introductions or after a warm up. If used straightaway, they can be frightening and may lead individuals to thing “Oh dear, what’s gonna happen next?”Avoid exclusion games – unfair and nastyFeedback – both the participant and the facilitator should have (before the session) skills in giving and receiving feedback.Acceptance - allow people to say what they want to say (even if you don’t agree). Respect their right to make their own decisions.Participants feel valued –Being listened to – active listening is so important. Beware, it is not something easy to do because as they are speaking, your mind will probably be focusing on the next stage! Tip : try briefly summarising what they have said…shows you listened and understood!Democratic style in Leadership – a democratic leadership works the best. No one feels threatened and decisions are made on a joint basis. (group is actively involved in any decision making, group decision is made on discussion, members decide on any restrictions or not, the facilitator partakes in the activity too. This is more likely to encourage participation than one end of the spectrum whereby the leader is dictatorial and imposes things and on the other where the leader has a laissez-faire attitude (ie “do what you want, I’m not really bothered”) who fails to contribute anything.Faciliatator as a model – should partake in the activity too. By doing so, he/she sets the standard for the game – encouraging others to partake. Not only that, but by participating, the facilitator can also demonstrate good examples of social skills eg by giving feedback in a constructive mannerThe Facilitator’s personal qualities – as a facilitator, you must ensure that you have adequate skills in counselling, group work or social skills training. If not….get trained yourself. If they can see you are sensitive to the needs of other, listens well, honest with integrity and respects the views of others….they are then more likely to confide and open up to you.
8 How to build it into a programme talkgamefilmgroup workDifferent modalities of learning interspersed with games.Games should be used in a planned sequence – this multiplies their impactMoments of activity help the participants concentrate in the sedentary periods of talks and films.gameclose
9 Putting it into Practice BrainteasersSkill builderEnergisersIcebreakersGround RulesOpenersActivities for team buildingProblems Main teaching ActivityEvaluation & Closure GamesProblem curersIn fact, you can use games in a variety of points in the course of a programme.
10 Types of Games Icebreakers Ground rule setting games Energisers BrainteasersProblem CurersSkill buildersClosing GamesEvaluation games
11 The boring traditional one Icebreakers (1)The boring traditional oneWhat ILearntLast YearThe mostImportantPeople inMy LifeWhat I likeTo doWhat I hold most dearIce breakers – even if people have worked with each other for many moons, often they really know v. little about each other. Ice breakers are perfect for allowing the sharing of limited and safe bits of information. This in turn will lay the foundations of a more open and trustworthy climate for the group.So icebreakers have 2 functionsTo gel people togetherTo lay the foundations for the topic to followBut this particular icebreaker is a boring one…and guess what….there are many just like this!My famous 3 minutesHobies etc…
12 Icebreakers (2) Write down 5 facts about yourself. One must be a lie Present yourself to the othersOthers have to spot the lie
13 Icebreakers (3) ANIMAL FINDER Get some blank cards and write the name of four different animals several timeseg for a group of 12 : sheep x3, pig x3, cow x3, dog x3).Give the cards out randomly..one to each person.Ask the members to find each other by making an appropriate noise to that animal...but no speaking.
14 Ground Rule Games Listen to others Don’t put other people down TACADE, 1986Listen to othersDon’t put other people downRespect Confidentiality & TrustShow RespectDon’t Interrupt othersTry to accept others viewsTry to accept others views….or at least understand them!ExampleAfter introductions, ask participants to lay down some ground rules that will prevent the occurrence of problems they have experienced in the past.RefTACADE 1986 Skills for Adolescence: a programme for Age 11-14, TACADE and Quest International
15 Mid Course Energisers DONT FALL INTO THE SEA Lay out an appropriate number of chairs in a circle (according to your group size).Get everyone to stand on the chairs.The chairs are safety points floating in a sea which is full of sharks.The task....the group has to arrange themselves in birth date order (day and month only....exclude the year).BUT they must not fall into the sea!Can be used at any timePurpose :to wake participants and get the blood moving again!Keep the concentration of participants focussed during periods of sedentary listening!Sometimes to reduce tensions within the group
17 Problem Curers (1) Dominant Talkers A Personal Talk Talk Limitation ExercisePROBLEM CURER's ...how to get out of bad situations eg difficult trainees - dominant talkers, silent sitters, disruptive 'know alls‘Personal talk – needs to be done tactfully though!Talk to them at the end of the session..... "you were really good today, but the thing is, i need to see how the others think to see if they are as good as you. so i need your help to encourage the others to speak”Talk Limitation ExerciseAsk everyone to put their keys down on the floor if they have spoken. They are not allowed to speak again until everyone has their keys on the floor (and thus the cycle repeats)
18 Problem Curers (2) Silent Sitters Challenging them Get them to Observe Using MatchsticksPeople who usually say little or nothing most of the timeChallenging themA group leader observes the quiet members. Then posing them challenging questions and encouraging them to talk. Needs to be done tactfully though.Get them to ObserveNominate a silent sitter to be an observer of a group session/process. Then get them to feedback at the end.Using MatchsticksGive each member 3 matchsticks. Everyone has to use up their matchsticks (one matchstick – one comment).
19 Skill Builders Team building Communication skills Facilitator-Presenter skillsLearningPerception & Lateral thinking gamesSelf managementSo many skills can be taught through games. These are just a few!
20 Answer: the price is right! Lateral Thinking 1LEFT PRICEAnswer: the price is right!The Price is Right
21 Lateral Thinking 2ESROH RIDINGHorse Back Riding
32 Closing Games Each participant is handed pieces of paper Each paper has the name of other participantsEach participant has to write “ I am glad I met XXX because…….”The pieces of paper are distributed to the appropriate people and read when they get homeAs time goes by, we tend to forget what we have learnt. Things that are most easily remembered at those things at the beginning or at the end. That is why closing games are so important………..they make the session more memorable.Closing games also tend to be of a positive note which in turn leaves the participant departing with a feel good factor. In this particular example, every participant leaves with positive feedback.
33 Evaluation Games Lay out 5 chairs Inform participants which is 1 and which is 5 (1 meaning bad, 5 good)Ask a questionParticipants have to stand behind the appropriate chairRepeat with more questionsInstead of the usual feedback forms…why not make it more interesting?Use human bar charts?Can be problems re: confidentiality, but they do give you a good gist about things. Always give the option of not participating.Participants must be fed back the results too!
34 Pitfalls – why games don’t work Games not selectively chosenTimingGroups too bigPoor Briefing/Feedback rules?Poor facilitation skillsChoosing the Game - First decide on what the likely problems of the group you are working with are likely to be eg group size (often limits the types of games you can do), ?icebreaking, ?energising, ?too quiet, ?one is too verbose and drowns the others etc etcThen decide on activities/games to overcome those problems.Timing of the activities is crucial.If the group is too large…split it up. Some say the ideal group size is somewhere between 5-12 people.Brief them on the activity and what is expected of them. This may be done verbally if simple task. Complex tasks may need written instruction. Check understanding. Warn when time nearly up. You might also consider giving them an earlier session on feedback rules (focuses on the task at hand, non judgemental, related to behaviours that can change, owned by the giver, accepted by the reciever, starts with the positive, given in manageable chunks at the appropriate time, is checked for understanding).Facilitate the activity – ie encourage open and constructive participant feedback.(how did you feel, what happened during the activity, what behaviours/strategies did you adopt, what went well, which strategies were helpful/unhelpful?)Evaluate the activity – Did it work well? Will you use it again the next time?
35 Why are we Writing a Booklet Loads of books on gamesMost are boring and traditionalThis will be a collection of greatest hits!……….real funny stuffAlso included, activities for specific purposes eg encouraging to talkFor intending and established trainers
36 When Will It Be Ready? How long is a piece of string? No, seriously, within the next 6m£ per book (just kidding!)Keep them coming in ( us)