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Physician know thyself! Identifying learning needs & using learning styles Dr Abayomi McEwen Dr Susi Caesar 11 th October 2006.

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Presentation on theme: "Physician know thyself! Identifying learning needs & using learning styles Dr Abayomi McEwen Dr Susi Caesar 11 th October 2006."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physician know thyself! Identifying learning needs & using learning styles Dr Abayomi McEwen Dr Susi Caesar 11 th October 2006

2 Aim To encourage you to become more effective learners

3 B the end of this session you will be able to… Give examples of ways to identify your learning needs Outline an approach to classifying learning styles Challenge your current learning methods Have started thinking about the place of learning styles in your professional development

4 What motivates you to learn? Pairs exercise

5 Responses from some Registrars re motivation to learn Interest in topic Exam Makes job easier Competition Feelings of inadequacy Wanting to be competent and professional Curiosity

6 Responses from some Registrars re motivation to learn Appraisal & Feedback Driven to teach Not wanting to look silly (again!)

7 Principles of Motivation Most of us have in-built urge to attempt to achieve Needs related to specific goals Needs & goals unstable relationship –Same needs produce very different behaviour indifferent individuals All have many needs but only few being acted upon at any one time

8 The Motivational Cycle NEED Stimulates DRIVE Produces OUTCOME Fulfils

9 THE LEARNING CYCLE Unconscious competence Change Unconscious incompetence AwarenessLearning Conscious competence Mastery Conscious incompetence

10 What methods do you use now to identify your learning needs? Pairs exercise

11 Some Registrars responses on identifying learning needs Curriculum Mistakes Gaps (PUNS & DENS) Change in protocols Assessments Medical Media Lay media Colleagues & Tutors

12 Identifying Learning Needs Questionnaires Tests Interviews Case Analysis Observation Critical Incident Self assessment Patient feedback/complaints

13 Do any of these help us to find out what we dont know we need to learn?!

14 Known to self (Registrar knows) Unknown to self (Registrar does not know) Known to others (Trainer knows) Learning needs known to both Blind spot Unknown to others (Trainer does not know) Learning need hidden from Trainer No idea what learning needs are Joharis Window

15 Known to self (Registrar knows) Unknown to self (Registrar does not know) Known to others (Trainer knows) Unknown to others (Trainer does not know) Using Joharis Window UNKNOWNHIDDEN BLINDOPEN TELL ASK/LISTEN

16 Reaching the blind spot! PEP CD Testing/Evaluation Topics avoided Feedback Scanning the journals Some answers given by Trainer/Registrar group

17 The experiential Learning Cycle after Kolb Concrete Experience (CE) Reflective Observation (RO) Abstract Conceptualisation (AC) Active Experimentation (AC)

18 The Learning Cycle Having an experience Concluding from the experience Planning the next steps Honey & Mumford, 1992 Reviewing the experience

19 Discuss the effective features of a recent learning experience

20 Registrars response on experience of an effective learning activity Relevant Addressed a need (exam) Appropriate time & place Sufficient time – not rushed Safe & supportive environment Positive Feedback Self esteem maintained Rewarded by pleasing teacher/family

21 Registrars response on experience of an effective learning activity Experiential learning when appropriate Teacher has skills & ability to teach subject Teacher personality/teaching style Varied stimulus

22 Learning Styles What sort of learning suits you best? Did you choose (consciously or unconsciously) that learning opportunity to suit your style? Have you done an assessment of your learning style?

23 Kolbs Learning Style Inventory Converger Diverger Assimilator Accomodator

24 Kolbs Learning Style Inventory Converger –Problem solver –Hypothetical deductive reasoning (general to specific Diverger –Views situations from many perspectives –Relied heavily on brainstorming & generation of ideas

25 Kolbs Learning Style Inventory Assimilator –Inductive reasoning –Create theoretical models Accommodator –Carrying out plans & experiments –Adapts to immediate specific circumstances

26 VARK Preferences NOT Strengths Visual Aural Reading/Writing Kinaesthetic (VARK inventory developed in 1987 by Neil Fleming, Lincoln University, New Zealand)

27 VARK Visual preference –Charts –Graphs –All symbolic arrows, circles etc that teachers use to replace words

28 VARK Aural/Auditory preference –information that is "heard." –Lectures –Tutorials –Tapes –group discussion –Speaking –web chat –talking things through

29 VARK Read/Write preference –Words –many academics have a strong preference for this modality –text-based input and output –reading and writing in all its forms.

30 VARK Kinesthetic (perceptual) preference –related to the use of experience and practice (simulated or real) –the student is connected to reality, "either through experience, example, practice or simulation –other modalities may be invoked

31 The Revision Guide to VARK Draw a mindmap, a diagram, cartoon or a picture Listen to a tape in the car or before going to sleep Rewrite notes in brief with key words highlighted Make a model, touch key points, learn by doing Visual Auditory Reading / Writing Kinaesthetic

32 Preferred Style & the Learning Cycle Experiencing Reviewing Concluding Planning & applying The Reflecto r TheTheorist TheActivist ThePragmatist Honey & Mumford, 1992

33 Activist Preference Gets home, throws the instructions away and starts making it at once Likes New experiences Engross in short term activities Like to generate ideas Loves limelight To be thrown in at the deep end To be involved with other people To have a go Dislikes Passive learning Standing back Too much data Working alone To be asked what has been learnt Theory Repetition Precise instructions Detail

34 Reflector Preference Reads the instructions, works out how to do it and then sleeps on it Likes Link with problem and subject To be shown techniques Practice with feedback Role model Application to own role Immediate transferability Reality Practical issues Dislikes Learning that is not related to needs Unrealistic trainers Lack of clarity Inertia Bureaucracy No real benefit to training

35 Theorist Preference Reads the instructions and works out how to do it before starting, checks it out occasionally perhaps involving others Likes Theory To be methodical To question To be stretched Structure and clarity Analysis & Logic Ideas and concepts Participate in complex situations Dislikes To be thrown into something Emotions and feelings Unstructured activities Lack of policy Lack of depth Lack of validity Mixing

36 Pragmatist Preference Methodically works through the instructions with little discussion Likes Observing Thinking about it Investigation Reviewing Reports Safe environment to share ideas Not to be rushed Dislikes Limelight Action without planning Short notice Lack of information Rigid rules Time pressure Short Cuts

37 What question do you ask? What if? Why? What? How?

38 ACTIVISTS – What if? Evaluator / mediator needed Let them teach themselves and others Self discovery Likes variety, things that are new, challenging, (competitive, in the limelight)

39 REFLECTORS – Why? Need a motivator Create a reason Simulation / discussion Preparation and discussion time, time to think, assimilate

40 THEORISTS – What? Need a teacher Give facts Structured information, challenging Opportunities for questions to probe and explore logic and assumptions

41 PRAGMATISTS – How? Need a coach Let them try it Facilitation Make links between subject matter and problem area, practice techniques with feedback

42 The IKEA link to Honey and Mumford Activists – Intuitive Gets home, throws the instructions away and starts building it at once Reflectors – Imaginative Reads the instructions and works out how to do it, then sleeps on it! Theorists – Analytical Reads the instructions and works out how to do it before starting, perhaps checking it out Pragmatists – Practical Methodically works through using the instructions with little help

43 Can you put your leaning style preferences in a hierarchical list?

44 How can we apply this to ourselves? Imagine the learning need is to insert an IUCD Discuss possible objectives that might go in your PDP if your preferred style is: Activist Reflector Theorist Pragmatist

45 Going back to earlier exercise about recent effective learning? Did the teacher use teaching methods that matched your preferred learning styles?

46 Which system/style? All of us can and do use all styles… best learners are balanced and can learn from most types of experience (this improves with age!) Strong preferences should be heeded if the learning need is important Least preferred styles can be consciously strengthened

47 So what? Depending on your learning style preferences: You will have enjoyed different parts of this lecture You will find this knowledge more or less useful You will be inspired to learn more effectively

48 Aim To encourage you to become more effective learners

49 B the end of this session you will be able to… Give examples of ways to identify your learning needs Outline an approach to classifying learning styles Challenge your current learning methods Have started thinking about the place of learning styles in your professional development

50 Communication holds the key to effective learning…


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