Depression Recognition and Management Dr Bruce Davies
What Is Depression? A Continuum Normal Mood Lowering Abnormal Mood Lowering Abnormal mood lowering and loss of function
What Is Depression? Depressive disorder Pervasive Persistent Wide range of symptoms
What Is Depression? Range of symptoms Negative views Worthlessness Incapacity Guilt Sleep disturbance Diurnal mood variation Loss of energy Impaired concentration
What Is Depression? Impaired work ability Poor social functioning Psychomotor retardation Pessimism Better off dead Thoughts of suicide Suicide / action Fear / belief of bodily illness
Understandability No longer important. Do not alter treatment thresholds. Do not alter treatment. Reactive / endogenous = confine to bin.
Vulnerabilities Losses Stressful life events Lack of social support Physical illness Familial factors Genetic factors
What Is Depression? - Various Criteria. Defeat Depression Campaign Depressed mood or loss of pleasure for at least 2 weeks. Plus 4 or more of: Worthlessness or guilt Impaired concentration Loss of energy and fatigue Thoughts of suicide Loss or increase of appetite or weight Insomnia or hypersomnia Retardation or agitation
What Is Depression? - Various Criteria. DSM – IV Duration > 2 weeks Depressed mood or Marked loss of interest or pleasure in normal activities Plus 4 of: i.Significant change in weight ii.Significant change in sleep pattern iii.Agitation or retardation iv.Fatigue or loss of energy v.Guilt / worthlessness vi.Cant concentrate or make decisions vii.Thoughts of death or suicide
What Is Depression? - Various Criteria. ICD – 10 Patient has low mood: 1)How bad is it and how long has it been going on? 2)Have you lost interest in things? 3)Are you more tired than usual? If the answer is yes to these, then:
ICD – 10 (Continued) 4)Have you lost confidence in yourself? 5)Do you feel guilty about things? 6)Concentration difficulties? 7)Sleeping problems? 8)Change in appetite or weight? 9)Do you feel that life is not worth living any more?
ICD – 10 (Continued) Mild. Two criteria from 1-3 and 2 others. Moderate. Two criteria from 1-3 and 3-4 others or a yes to question 5. Severe. Most of the criteria in severe form especially questions 5 & 9.
Variants Depressive episodes that do not meet the criteria for major depression. Lifelong mild fluctuating depression (Dysthymia). Mixed states of above two. Manic depression – bipolar disorder.
Incidence Of Depression : 2000 Patients 100 - major 100 - minor 200 – sub- clinical Depression. In 50% of patients it may not be acknowledged.
Numbers 10% of those diagnosed in primary care are referred to psychiatrists. 1 in 1000 are admitted to hospital. Lifetime incidence rates approach 33%. 5% of consulters have major depression. 5% have milder depression. A further 10% have some depressive features.
Numbers At least one patient per surgery will have depressive symptoms of some type. Commoner in younger people including children than thought in the past. Men:women = 1:2. Common in the physically ill. 50% recurrence rate. 12% become chronically depressed.
Why Missed? 50% are missed. 10% subsequently recognised. Of the 40% who remain unrecognised: Half remit spontaneously. Half remain depressed 6 months later.
Missed: Patient Factors Present somatic symptoms. Physical problems. Stigma. Beliefs about GP role and time to listen. Longstanding depression. Less overt / typical. Less insight.
Missed: Doctor Factors More accurate doctors. Make more eye contact. Show less signs of hurry. Are good listeners. Ask questions with social and psychological content. Less accurate doctors. Ask many closed questions. Ask questions derived from theory rather than what the patient just said.
Assessment Severity Duration Social network Views of self, world and future Suicidal thoughts Past history Factors affecting symptoms Biological features
Assessment Skills Directive not closed questions Picking up on verbal clues clarification Picking up on non-verbal clues and using them Empathy Summarising
Treatment Contract Key skills Re-frame symptoms as depression Link to life events Negotiate anti-depressants if necessary Problem list and priorities Set realistic time scale Agree regular review
Explanations Depressive illness is clinically different from the blues and involves chemical changes in the brain. Depressive illness has characteristic symptoms and explain them.
Explanations Depression benefits from both drug and non-drug approaches. Pills for symptoms. Talking for problems.
Explanations Anti-depressants are not addictive or habit forming. Anti-depressants take 2-3 weeks to begin to work and need to be taken for 4-6 months after the full benefit is obtained to prevent relapse.
Explanations Side effects occur and are expected – explain. Drugs enable talking therapy to work better. Regular review is important and needs to continue for at least 6 months.
Explanations Talking therapy can help solve problems that are soluble, cope with the insoluble and examine other problems that seem unrealistic to the patient or therapist. Prevention of further trouble will be considered when the treatment is coming to an end.
References Defeat Depression Campaign. The Royal College of Psychiatrists. 1994. Treating People with depression: a practical guide for primary care. G Wilkinson et al. Radcliffe 1998. Recognition and management of depression in general practice: consensus statement. BMJ 1992;305:1198-202.