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Analysing English Grammar Working with structures.

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Presentation on theme: "Analysing English Grammar Working with structures."— Presentation transcript:

1 Analysing English Grammar Working with structures

2 Outline of the workshop n Describe the main structural units in SFG n Useful tests for identifying clause internal boundaries

3 Function and Form In working with grammatical structures, the key is to: n recognise structural units and connect them to the functions they serve to express n recognise functions and connect them to the structural units which serve to express them

4 Structural units Describing a sentence as a construction of words is rather like describing a house as a construction of bricks, without recognizing the walls and the rooms as intermediate structural units. –Halliday (1994:180)

5 Main elements of the clause: experiential view Clause ParticipantProcessParticipant Johnmight fix it Circumstance tomorrow

6 Main elements of the clause: interpersonal view Clause SubjectFiniteComplement Johnmight it Predicator fix ResidueMood Adjunct tomorrow

7 Main elements of the clause: textualview Clause Johnmight it fix RhemeTheme tomorrow

8 What are the main structural units of the clause? Clause noundeterminerverbnoundeterminerword level clause level idiotthatdrovecarthe hedrovecarthe carthewas driventhe manby group level

9 ENRAGED COW INJURES FARMER WITH AX Clause nounadjectiveverbprepositionnoun cowenragedinjureswithfarmer axe noun group group level

10 ENRAGED COW INJURES FARMER WITH AX Clause nounadjectiveverb cowenragedinjureswithfarmer axe group group level

11 Groups in SFG n Nouns nominal group (nice people) n Verbs verbal group (was eating) n Adverb adverbial group (so quickly) n Adjective adjectival group (very nice) n Conjunction conjunction group (even if) n... Phrase: reduction of a clause n Preposition prepositional phrase Lexical base Expansion of the lexical base (word) Head + Modifier

12 Postmodifier Premodifier Head much morequicklythan he could Groups : expansions of a word – Logical Structure asniceas you very good nicepeople the five redbookson my desk rightin even if

13 Basic structure of the nominal group ng Thing Nominal group: [Deictic] [Numerative] [Epithet] [Classifier] [Thing] [Qualifier] DModifier Qualifier woman the oldwho thought she had bought a hand massager in the shoe DeterminersModifiers

14 Postmodifier Premodifier Head ng Thing DMod. Qualifier woman the old who thought she had bought a hand massager [Deictic] [Numerative] [Epithet] [Classifier] [Thing] [Qualifier] Determiners Modifiers

15 PP pg ng th d shoethe PP pg ng pg: preposition group ng: nominal group Basic structure of the prepositional phrase Prepositional phrase: [Process] [Range] (experiential structure) Not a case of Head + Modifier in pg

16 They filmed [the scene in the hallway] Clause ParticipantProcess Participant Theyfilmed ng th d scenethe pp pg ng th d hallwaythe q in pg

17 They filmed [the scene][in the hallway] Clause ParticipantProcess Participant Theyfilmed ng th d scenethe pp ng th d hallwaythe Circumstance pg in pg

18 Boundaries and ambiguities Groucho Marx: « One morning I shot an elephant in my pyjamas…... how he got into my pyjamas, Ill never know »

19 Clause CircumstanceProcess shotanI PP in my pyjamas One morningelephant Circumstance qualifier Participant What function does this unit have?

20 Pronoun replacement test n The group acts as a single unit. n Pronouns DO NOT replace nouns n Pronouns replace a unit/group One morning I shot an elephant in my pjs. One morning I shot it. One morning I shot an elephant in my pjs. One morning I shot it in my pjs

21 Listener Comment from: RADIO 4 - SATURDAY LIVE I thought the item on the old woman who thought she had bought a hand massager but actually bought a dildo was excellent Ithought wasexcellent the item on the old woman who thought she had bought a hand massager but actually bought a dildo it wasexcellent

22 Movement tests n (Pronoun replacement test) n Cleft test n Passive test n Subject test

23 Cleft test n It was X that Y e.g. I saw the man from the car ?It was the man I saw from the car ?It was the man from the car that I saw ?It was from the car that I saw the man ?It was the man from the car that I saw

24 Passive test n X process Y Y was processed e.g. I saw the man from the car ?The man was seen from the car ? The man from the car was seen

25 Subject test: to determine Subject 1. Clause must be in declarative (statement) form 2. Reformulate the clause in the interrogative from (you may need to add an auxiliary verb) 3. The auxiliary will form a boundary around the Subject e.g. The symptoms of early cataract can be improved with new eyeglasses. Can the symptoms of early cataract be improved with new eyeglasses? *Can the symptoms be improved of early cataract with new eyeglasses the symptoms of early cataract is the Subject, and therefore one structural unit.

26 Basic structure of the verbal group vg Auxiliary 3 Verbal group: [Finite] ([Polarity]) ([Auxiliary])* [Event] Finite/Auxiliary 1 Auxiliary 2 Event been might have tricked I might [mod.] have [perf.] been [prog.] being [pass.] tricked [lexical verb] by that guy. Auxiliary 4 being

27 3 ways for clauses to combine –embedding (within) – [rankshifting] This is the house that Jack built –co-ordinating (equal) – [parataxis] I like John and John likes me. –subordinating (dependant) – [hypotaxis] I will like John if he likes me.

28 Recognizing (embedded) clauses n Each clause has only one main verb (Event) n Every independent clause must have a Finite element (whether expressed or not) n All non-finite clauses are embedded (and serve to express a function within the clause or a group)

29 In English, there are three types of non-finite clauses: 1.-ed (past participle) The photograph faded by the sun could not be restored. Destroyed by the rain, the sand castle left only traces. 2.-ing (progressive) Having tried as hard as he could, John accepted defeat. Quitting my job is not an option. 3.« to » (infinitival) To win would be a great accomplishment. She is happy to help. 3 types of NON-FINITE clause in English

30 How could we analyse these? n I dropped off some resumes and looked at a few places to rent for the winter months. n I didnt get any information from the program head because I couldn't get through

31 How many clauses? 1. I dropped off some resumes 2. and (I) looked at a few places to rent for the winter months. 1. I didnt get any information from the program head 2. because I couldn't get through

32 How many verbs ? 1. I dropped off some resumes 2. and (I) looked at a few places to rent for the winter months. 1. I didnt get any information from the program head 2. because I couldn't get through

33 Any embedded clauses? 1. I dropped off some resumes 2. and (I) looked at a few places [to rent for the winter months] 1. I didnt get any information from the program head 2. because I couldn't get through

34 Where are the group boundaries? 1. I | dropped off | some resumes ng vg ng 2. And | (I) | looked | at a few places [to rent for the winter months] ng vg pp 1. I | didnt get | any information | from the program head ng vg ng pp 2. Because | I | couldn't get through ng vg

35 I dropped off some resumes Clause ng th d resumessome ng th I vg Finite/Event dropped off

36 I looked at a few places to rent for the winer months Clause pp ng num d fewa pg at pg ng vg Finite/Event looked th I places q Clause pp ng m d winterthe pg for pg vg Event to rent th months


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