2Group CohesionThe concept of cohesion has been an important factor in the study of group behavior and its significance is often a source of motivation for group leaders.Cliches such as "Together We Stand, Divided We Fall", "There is No I in Team", or "Players Play, Teams Win" are often used to show individuals the importance of team cohesion.
3Definitions of Group Cohesion Carron, Brawley, and Widmeyer (1998) defined cohesion as “a dynamic process that is reflected in the tendency of a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member needs”Mudrack (1989) stated that cohesion "seems intuitively easy to understand and describe …this ease of description has failed to translate into an ease of definition"
4What is Group Cohesion?Group cohesion has been conceptualized in many waysCohesion = Attraction: Festinger and his colleagues considered cohesion to be a form of attractionMembers of cohesive groups tend to like their fellow membersHogg: social attraction (depersonalized liking for others in our group) vs. personal attraction (liking for specific individuals)
6CohesionCarron’s general conceptual model of cohesion offered four general antecedents of cohesionEnvironmentalPersonalLeadershipTeam Factors
7Cohesion = UnityCohesive groups stick together as members “cohere” to one another &the groupThe group is unified; solidarity is high in the group.Members report feeling a sense of belonging to the group
8Cohesion = Unity Group Unity Unity Cohesion Belonging (part of the group)UnityCohesion
9Cohesion = TeamworkThe combined activities of two of more individuals who coordinate their efforts to achieve goalsCollective efficacy: a high level of confidence about success at the tasks the group acceptsEsprit de corps: feeling of unity commitment, confidence, and enthusiasm for the group shared by most of all of the members
11Does Cohesion Develop Over Time? Cohesion develops over time in a relatively predictable patternTuckman's five-stage model of group developmentOrientation (forming) stageConflict (storming) stageStructure development (norming) stageWork (performing) stageDissolution (adjourning) stage (planned and unplanned)
13Does Cohesion Develop Over Time? Types of group development modelsSuccessive-stage theories: TuckmanCyclical models: Bales's equilibrium modelPunctuated equilibrium models: periods of accelerated change
14Forming First moments of a newly formed group’s life Often marked by tension, guarded interchanges, and low levels of interactionPeople monitor their behaviour and are tentative when expression opinions
15StormingTension increases in the storming phase – over goals, procedures, authority etc.Conflict often causes fight or flight responsesConflict is a required element for creating team cohesion
16Norming Group becomes more unified and organized Mutual trust and support increasesRules, roles, and goals are establishedCommunication increases
17PerformingProductivity is usually not instantaneous, thus productivity must wait until the group maturesMany groups get sidetracked by the storming or norming phasesMore mature groups spend less time socializing, less time in conflict and need less guidance than less mature teams
18Adjourning Either planned or spontaneous Can be stressful for team membersIf dissolution is unplanned, the final group sessions may be filled with animosity and apathy
19What are the Consequences of Cohesion? Cohesion tends to lead to:Increased member satisfactionDecreased employee turnover and stressCohesive groups can intensify emotional and social processes. Such groups can:Be more emotionally demanding (e.g, the old sergeant syndrome)Exert more conformity pressure on membersSuffer from groupthinkRespond with more hostility
20Positive & Negative Consequences (cont’d) The cohesion-performance relationship is bi-directional:success increases a group’s cohesion and cohesivegroups tend to outperform less cohesive groups.The cohesion-performance relationship is strongestwhen members are committed to the group's tasks.
21Norms are also critically Cohesion Performance RelationshipCohesionAttractionUnity(Group Pride)Task Focus (teamwork)Performance.184.108.40.206.03Norms are also criticallyimportant
22Groups with norms that stress productivity Groups with norms that stress low productivityP r o d u c t i v i t yThe cohesion-performance relationship is weakest if group norms do not encourage high productivity
23Does Cohesion Develop Over Time? Types of group development modelsSuccessive-stage theories: TuckmanCyclical models: Bales's equilibrium modelPunctuated equilibrium models: periods of accelerated change
24Should Organizations Rely on Teams to Enhance Productivity? What is a team?A specialized, relatively organized, task focused groupFeatures (same as any group):InteractionInterdependenceStructureGoalsCohesionTypes of teams…..
25Function Examples Type & Subtypes Executive Plan, direct ManagementExecutivePlan, directBoard of directors, city councilCommandIntegrate, coordinateControl tower, combat centerProjectNegotiationDeal, persuadeLabor-management, international treatyCommissionChoose, investigateSearch committee, juryDesignCreate, developResearch and development team, marketing groupAdvisoryDiagnose, suggestQuality circle, steering committeeServiceProvide, repairFast food, auto service teamProductionBuild, assembleHome construction, automotive assemblyActionMedicalTreat, healSurgery, ERResponseProtect, rescueFire station, paramedicsMilitaryNeutralize, protectInfantry squad, tank crewTransportationConvey, haulAirline cockpit, train crewSportsCompete, winBaseball, soccer
26Should Organizations Rely on Teams to Enhance Productivity? Setting and clarifying goals and rolesDesigning teams: size, communication features, authority, organization, duration, compositionPracticing (training): orienting, distributing resources, pacing, coordinating responses, and motivating membersProcess consultationBuilding cohesion by increasing communal perspective, efficacyTeam approaches are reliably associated with increases in effectiveness and satisfaction.
27Goal SettingIn order for any athlete to achieve their true potential they must set themselves targetsThese targets are called “goals”Setting goals can help an athlete achieve: % of studies show an increase in performance when effective goals are set
28SMARTER GOALS… S – specific to the event or the skill M – measurable targets to aid comparisonA – attainableR – realistic, challenging but possibleT – timedE – exciting to ensure interest in the targetR - recorded “ink it, don’t just think it”
29HazingHazing – new member is subjected to mental or physical discomfort, harassment, embarrassment, ridicule, or humiliation.can increase members’ commitment to the groupFestinger, Schachter’s and Back’s classic study of the “Seekers” suggested initiations create dissonanceAronson and Mill’s study of severe initiationsAlternative interpretations and the dangers of hazing