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Cohesion and Development

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Presentation on theme: "Cohesion and Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cohesion and Development
Chapter 5

2 Group Cohesion The concept of cohesion has been an important factor in the study of group behavior and its significance is often a source of motivation for group leaders. Cliches such as "Together We Stand, Divided We Fall", "There is No I in Team", or "Players Play, Teams Win" are often used to show individuals the importance of team cohesion.

3 Definitions of Group Cohesion
Carron, Brawley, and Widmeyer (1998) defined cohesion as “a dynamic process that is reflected in the tendency of a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member needs” Mudrack (1989) stated that cohesion "seems intuitively easy to understand and describe …this ease of description has failed to translate into an ease of definition"

4 What is Group Cohesion? Group cohesion has been conceptualized in many ways Cohesion = Attraction: Festinger and his colleagues considered cohesion to be a form of attraction Members of cohesive groups tend to like their fellow members Hogg: social attraction (depersonalized liking for others in our group) vs. personal attraction (liking for specific individuals)

5 Cohesion = Attraction, Liking
between members to the group-as-a-whole Cohesion

6 Cohesion Carron’s general conceptual model of cohesion offered four general antecedents of cohesion Environmental Personal Leadership Team Factors

7 Cohesion = Unity Cohesive groups stick together as members “cohere” to one another &the group The group is unified; solidarity is high in the group. Members report feeling a sense of belonging to the group

8 Cohesion = Unity Group Unity Unity Cohesion
Belonging (part of the group) Unity Cohesion

9 Cohesion = Teamwork The combined activities of two of more individuals who coordinate their efforts to achieve goals Collective efficacy: a high level of confidence about success at the tasks the group accepts Esprit de corps: feeling of unity commitment, confidence, and enthusiasm for the group shared by most of all of the members

10 Cohesion = Teamwork Collective Efficacy Teamwork Cohesion
Task Teamwork Cohesion Group morale, esprit de corps Moti- vation

11 Does Cohesion Develop Over Time?
Cohesion develops over time in a relatively predictable pattern Tuckman's five-stage model of group development Orientation (forming) stage Conflict (storming) stage Structure development (norming) stage Work (performing) stage Dissolution (adjourning) stage (planned and unplanned)

12 Forming Storming Norming Adjourning Task Performing

13 Does Cohesion Develop Over Time?
Types of group development models Successive-stage theories: Tuckman Cyclical models: Bales's equilibrium model Punctuated equilibrium models: periods of accelerated change

14 Forming First moments of a newly formed group’s life
Often marked by tension, guarded interchanges, and low levels of interaction People monitor their behaviour and are tentative when expression opinions

15 Storming Tension increases in the storming phase – over goals, procedures, authority etc. Conflict often causes fight or flight responses Conflict is a required element for creating team cohesion

16 Norming Group becomes more unified and organized
Mutual trust and support increases Rules, roles, and goals are established Communication increases

17 Performing Productivity is usually not instantaneous, thus productivity must wait until the group matures Many groups get sidetracked by the storming or norming phases More mature groups spend less time socializing, less time in conflict and need less guidance than less mature teams

18 Adjourning Either planned or spontaneous
Can be stressful for team members If dissolution is unplanned, the final group sessions may be filled with animosity and apathy

19 What are the Consequences of Cohesion?
Cohesion tends to lead to: Increased member satisfaction Decreased employee turnover and stress Cohesive groups can intensify emotional and social processes. Such groups can: Be more emotionally demanding (e.g, the old sergeant syndrome) Exert more conformity pressure on members Suffer from groupthink Respond with more hostility

20 Positive & Negative Consequences (cont’d)
The cohesion-performance relationship is bi-directional: success increases a group’s cohesion and cohesive groups tend to outperform less cohesive groups. The cohesion-performance relationship is strongest when members are committed to the group's tasks.

21 Norms are also critically
Cohesion Performance Relationship Cohesion Attraction Unity (Group Pride) Task Focus (teamwork) Performance .51 .25 .23 .18 .03 Norms are also critically important

22 Groups with norms that stress productivity
Groups with norms that stress low productivity P r o d u c t i v i t y The cohesion-performance relationship is weakest if group norms do not encourage high productivity

23 Does Cohesion Develop Over Time?
Types of group development models Successive-stage theories: Tuckman Cyclical models: Bales's equilibrium model Punctuated equilibrium models: periods of accelerated change

24 Should Organizations Rely on Teams to Enhance Productivity?
What is a team? A specialized, relatively organized, task focused group Features (same as any group): Interaction Interdependence Structure Goals Cohesion Types of teams…..

25 Function Examples Type & Subtypes Executive Plan, direct
Management Executive Plan, direct Board of directors, city council Command Integrate, coordinate Control tower, combat center Project Negotiation Deal, persuade Labor-management, international treaty Commission Choose, investigate Search committee, jury Design Create, develop Research and development team, marketing group Advisory Diagnose, suggest Quality circle, steering committee Service Provide, repair Fast food, auto service team Production Build, assemble Home construction, automotive assembly Action Medical Treat, heal Surgery, ER Response Protect, rescue Fire station, paramedics Military Neutralize, protect Infantry squad, tank crew Transportation Convey, haul Airline cockpit, train crew Sports Compete, win Baseball, soccer

26 Should Organizations Rely on Teams to Enhance Productivity?
Setting and clarifying goals and roles Designing teams: size, communication features, authority, organization, duration, composition Practicing (training): orienting, distributing resources, pacing, coordinating responses, and motivating members Process consultation Building cohesion by increasing communal perspective, efficacy Team approaches are reliably associated with increases in effectiveness and satisfaction.

27 Goal Setting In order for any athlete to achieve their true potential they must set themselves targets These targets are called “goals” Setting goals can help an athlete achieve: % of studies show an increase in performance when effective goals are set

28 SMARTER GOALS… S – specific to the event or the skill
M – measurable targets to aid comparison A – attainable R – realistic, challenging but possible T – timed E – exciting to ensure interest in the target R - recorded “ink it, don’t just think it”

29 Hazing Hazing – new member is subjected to mental or physical discomfort, harassment, embarrassment, ridicule, or humiliation. can increase members’ commitment to the group Festinger, Schachter’s and Back’s classic study of the “Seekers” suggested initiations create dissonance Aronson and Mill’s study of severe initiations Alternative interpretations and the dangers of hazing

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