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Lexis and phraseology in a systemic functional grammar Gordon Tucker Centre for Language and Communication Research Cardiff University LINC SUMMER SCHOOL.

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Presentation on theme: "Lexis and phraseology in a systemic functional grammar Gordon Tucker Centre for Language and Communication Research Cardiff University LINC SUMMER SCHOOL."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lexis and phraseology in a systemic functional grammar Gordon Tucker Centre for Language and Communication Research Cardiff University LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

2 grammar, lexis and phraseology as linguistic phenomena what lexical and phraseological phenomena are there to account for and model? grammar, lexis and phraseology through the lens of SFL how can these phenomena be modelled within a systemic functional lexicogrammar? LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 The orientation of these two sessions

3 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 overview grammar and lexis in a model/theory of language lexical phenomena to be accounted for Cardiff SFG resources for modelling the lexicogrammar where and how lexis is modelled in general modelling the various phenomena issues and problems for an SFG approach

4 grammar (syntax) and lexis SYNTAXLEXICON syntagmatically oriented opposition paradigmatically oriented opposition (meaning) potential carried by the standard traditional view interface LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

5 Cognitive linguistics does not accept the sharp distinction made in generative grammar between syntax and the lexicon (…..) Rather, it contends that syntax and the lexicon form a continuum of constructions ranging from very specific elements (e.g. cat, kick the bucket) to increasingly more general patterns (e.g. noun, transitive construction) (Cristiano Broccias 2006:81-82)

6 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 Corpus studies, based on large collections of authentic text from a range of different sources, have provided massive evidence for the interdependence of lexis and grammar (or vocabulary and syntax). They have demonstrated that two areas that have traditionally been kept apart, both in language pedagogy and in linguistic theory, are in fact inseparable. (Römer 2009)

7 The lexicon (….) is simply the most delicate grammar. In other words there is only one network of lexicogrammatical options (Halliday 1978:42) LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

8 it is theoretically and descriptively desirable (and arguably essential) within SFG to treat lexis as a system network of options a list of lexical entries, however well specified, does not prioritise the notion of choice lexical expressions (or their senses) classify the world of human experience in terms of differences and similarities some differences/similarities are greater than others the organisation of lexis in terms of sense relations (e.g. hyponymy, meronymy, antonymy) offers a potential solution as a point of departure e.g. Martins chapter on ideation (Martin 1992) why represent lexis as a system network? LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

9 ship / ʃɪ p / noun a large boat that carries people or goods by sea: There are two restaurants on board ship. a sailing / cargo / cruise ship a ships captain / crew / company / cook Raw materials and labour come by ship, rail or road. They boarded a ship bound for India. When the ship docked at Southampton he was rushed to hospital.see also AIRSHIP, FLAGSHIP, LIGHTSHIP see JUMP V., SINK V., SPOIL V., TIGHT verb (-pp-) 1 [VN] to send or transport sb/sth by ship or by another means of transport: The company ships its goods all over the world. He was arrested and shipped back to the UK for trial. 2 to be available to be bought; to make sth available to be bought: [v] The software is due to ship next month. [VN] The company continues to ship more computer systems than its rivals. 3 [VN] ~ water (of a boat, etc.) to have water coming in over the sides see SHAPE V. ship sb off (disapproving) to send sb to a place where they will stay: The children were shipped off to a boarding school at an early age. Lexical information (as represented in a dictionary LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

10 1. grammatical (syntactic) relations (e.g. the word class, grammatical environment, colligation and grammatical consequences of the choice of a given lexical sense/item) 2. morphology and phonology 3. the experiential organisation of lexis 4. collocation 5. polysemy 6. field-specificity and genre-specificity 7. phraseology – idiom – metaphor - formulaicity 8. formality 9. technicality 10. Appraisal and evaluation 11. textual cohesion (e.g. lexical cohesion in Halliday and Hasan 1976) 12. social group variation (Some of the) Lexical Phenomena to be Modelled LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

11 LEXIS IN SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL LINGUISTICS

12 He [the grammarian] would like to turn the whole of linguistic form into grammar, hoping to show that lexis can be defined as most delicate grammar. The exit to lexis would then be closed, and all exponents ranged in systems........................... No description has yet been made so delicate that we can test whether there really comes a place where increased delicacy yields no further systems: relations at this degree of delicacy can only be stated statistically, and serious statistical work has hardly begun. (Halliday 1961) Hallidays grammarians dream Lexis as Most Delicate Grammar (LAMDG) LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

13 The Problem of Lexical Description It would take at least 100 volumes of the present size (689 pages: GHT) to extend the description of the grammar up to that point (grammar extended to the point of maximum delicacy) for any portion of the vocabulary of English, and as we have noted, the returns diminish the farther one proceeds) (Halliday and Matthiessen 2005:46)

14 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 Lexicalism or Grammaticalism lexis as most delicate grammar (e.g. Halliday) grammar as most general lexis (e.g. Sinclair) lexical choice determined by grammatical choice grammatical choice determined by lexical choice or BOTH?

15 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 Hoeys Theory of Lexical Priming In this book I want to argue for a new theory of the lexicon, which amounts to a new theory of language. The theory reverses the role of lexis and grammar, arguing that lexis is complexly and systemically structured and that grammar is an outcome of lexical structure. (Hoey 2005:1)

16 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 systemic functional approaches to lexis and phraseology Halliday 1961 Berry 1977 Fawcett 1980 Hasan 1985,1987 Martin 1992 Matthiessen 1990 Cross 1993 Tucker 1996a, 1996b, 1997, 1998, 2001, 2006, 2007 Wanner 1997

17 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 GENDER animate inanimate ANIMALHOOD MATURITY differentiated undifferentiated human non-human adult youthful tame wild masc fem PART OF BERRYS GENDER SYSTEMS NETWORK (BERRY 1977:62)

18 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 Hasan 1987 The Grammarians Dream gather, collect, accumulate scatter, divide, distribute, strew, spill, share

19 canine bovine mature immature male female (dog) (cow) (dog : cow) (puppy : calf) dog : bull bitch : cow from Martin (1992:286) Martin (1992): Lexis and Ideation

20 SEX OF WEARER FORMALITY PART OF WEARER non-specific specific unmarked casual head body on head around neck upper lower extremities torso long short closed opening (at front) non-supporting supporting inner outer partitioned non-partitioned firm soft holes tubes from Halliday and Matthiessen (1999:199) male female items of clothing

21 [unmarked] [non-specific] [body] [lower] [extremities] [supporting] [firm] shoe [unmarked] [non-specific] [body] [lower] [extremities] [supporting] [soft] slipper [unmarked] [non-specific] [body] [lower] [extremities] [non-supporting] [soft] sock resulting selection expressions

22 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 LEXIS IN THE CARDIFF GRAMMAR

23 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 System Network and Realisation Rule Resources Available in the Cardiff Grammar for the Modelling of Lexis is the architecture of the Cardiff Grammar adequate for the representation of lexical and phraseological phenomena?

24 SYSTEM NETWORK OF SEMANTIC FEATURES REALISATION RULES AND POTENTIAL STRUCTURES SELECTION EXPRESSION OF SEMANTIC FEATURES ONE LAYER OF A RICHLY LABELLED TREE STRUCTURE the core components of a simplified systemic functional grammar (from Fawcett 2008:41) MEANING FORM re-entry LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

25 (1) a full range of system network conventions a bcdebcde fghfgh ijij klmnklmn LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 o

26 (2) realisation rules (a)the exponence rule 72.825 : magpie_c : h < "magpie". Rule no 72.825: expound head of nominal group by the item magpie h ngp magpie

27 (4) preferences and re-entry rules 68.42 : by_age : m age @ 44, for m age prefer [quality, quality of thing, presenting quality of thing, age q], for m age re-enter at entity.

28 (5) re-entry into the system network LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

29 (3) probabilities on features in systems a b c a b 100% c 0% LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 90% 10%

30 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 situation thing (including minor relationship with thing) quantity quality entity - MODE - TECHNICALITY - DIALECT - ENTITY TYPE the very first system in the Cardiff Grammar!

31 Cl S/Ag M C/Af ngp ngp h d d m h he kissed his little sister SYSTEM NETWORK SELECTION EXPRESSION (REALISATION RULES) [action, two role process (1), contact, kick (3), agent subject theme (5), information giver (6) pastness (7), not retrospective, not modalised (31), circumstance unspecified, positive (44), etc. etc.] FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE Cl, S @ 33, Ag by S, m < little etc.

32 Where and how is lexis represented in the Cardiff Grammar? 1. Where? LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

33 SEMANTICSGRAMMATICAL UNITLEXICAL CLASS SituationClauselexical verb Thingnominal groupnoun Qualityadjectival/adverbial groupadjective adverb Minor Relationshipprepositional group preposition LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 From Semantics to Grammartical Unit to Lexical Class

34 action mental relational like, love, think, see, hear, understand etc. eat,run, touch, break, repair etc. be, become, equal, represent etc. system network for TRANSITIVITY realised in the Clause process type LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

35 cultural classification particularisation THING quantification premodification modification postmodification mass count happiness hammer e.g. the, this, that, these, my e.g. a, some, three, big, unusual which we liked systems in the network for THING (meanings realised in the nominal group) (nominal group) LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

36 quality presented QUALITY ROLE QUALITY TYPE TEMPERING CO-ORDINATION quality of thing careful quality of situation carefully relative different thing oriented big situation oriented easy environmental sunny tempered very untempered tempering sought how co-ordinated red and white not co-ordinated systems in the network for QUALITY (meanings realised in the adjectival and adverbial groups)

37 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 Where and how is lexis represented in the Cardiff Grammar? 2. How?

38 system network is traversed features are collected (selection expression) realisation rules on features are executed lexicalisation is associated with exponence some element of structure (e.g. the head of the nominal group) is expounded by some lexical (and/or) morphological item selecting lexical senses* and items LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

39 realisation rules filling rules insert a unit of structure (e.g. clause, adjectival group) ngp (= fill an element of structure with a nominal group) componence rules insert an element of structure h @ 84 ( = insert a head into the ngp structure at place 84) exponence rules insert a lexical (or morphological item) h < player (expound the head element with the item player) S ngp h player

40 Tom Bartlett is a terrible darts player h h ngp mmd S MC Cl LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

41 tool as such saw tool hammer tool specified screwdriver chisel drill part of a simplified lexical system network whole head part shaft LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

42 from grammatical to lexical choice increase in delicacy grammatical…………………………………………lexical LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

43 What lexical phenomena can be represented in an SFG approach such as the Cardiff Grammar?

44 1. grammatical (syntactic) relations (e.g. the word class, grammatical environment, colligation and grammatical consequences of the choice of a given lexical sense/item) 2. morphology and phonology 3. the experiential organisation of lexis 4. collocation 5. polysemy 6. field-specificity and genre-specificity 7. phraseology – idiom – metaphor - formulaicity 8. formality 9. technicality 10. Appraisal and evaluation 11. textual cohesion (e.g. lexical cohesion in Halliday and Hasan 1976) 12. social group variation (Some of the) Lexical Phenomena to be Modelled LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

45 modelling the various phenomena 1. The grammar of lexis general grammar-lexis correlations – general colligations the individual grammar of lexical sense/items – individual colligations

46 general grammar lexis correlations assigns a lexical item to a word class through its exponence relationship with a functional element of structure M < give h < electricity a < happy p < with specifies the grammatical context(s) in which a lexical item/word class operates determiner + modifier + head + qualifier determiner + adjective + noun + relative clause/prepositional group LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 N.B. No explicit reference to word class labels such as noun, adjective etc. The grammar:

47 individual grammar-lexis correlations specifies grammatical dependency associated with a lexical sense e.g. complementation of verbs, intensification and complementation of adjectives LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 she likes to go out on Fridays she likes going out on Fridays she likes parties angry with the government angry about the decision angry at the prime minister

48 The Grammar of Verbs The system of transitivity relational mental action environmental influential event relating TRANSITIVITY

49 mental cognition emotion perception simple perceiver affected perceiver agent perceiver perc third party agent]

50 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 simple perceiver seeing feeling hearing

51 places the M (Main Verb) in the clause expounds the M with a lexical item (e.g. heard) specifies and places any realised associated Participant Role(s) specifies re-entry and preferences for the Participant Role(s) specifies any complementation types, re-entry and preferences, particularly in the case of mental processes e.g. he heard the intruder he heard the intruder arriving he heard the intruder arrive LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

52 Cl S/Per M C/Ph heard ngp Victor the intruder LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

53 positive liking negative liking normal like highlove very highadore normaldislike highloathe very highdetest mental… the grammar of individual lexical items: verb complementation in and out of lexis LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

54 positive liking: [+ V-ing] [+to + infinitive] [+ngp] negative liking: [+ngp] [+V-ing] (rare) [+to + infinitive] (v.v. rare or unattested) different probabilities of rareness between dislike, loathe and detest complementation of [liking] processes LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

55 positive liking negative liking normal like highlove very high adore normal highhate very high loathe 70% Ph thing 70% prospective 30% Ph situation dislike 30% performance 95% Ph thing 5% Ph performance LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

56 consequences lexicalise: M < dislike for Ph re-enter system network for ENTITY TYPE, prefer [95% thing/5% situation, dependent situation, performance] (e.g. ing) for Em enter system network for Thing, prefer [concrete, living, 95% human – 5% animal] LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

57 like dislike lexicalise as dislike re-enter network for situation (clause) or thing (nominal group) for complementation re-entry into the system network with probabilities set LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

58 lexical items have their own grammar mental process remember in sense of celebrate or hold a special place in ones memory he is remembered by old timers as the doctor who never sent the bill (COBUILD) the 1991 cup will always be remembered (COBUILD) 30% active 70% passive lexis or grammar first issue

59 cultural classification particularisation THING quantification premodification modification postmodification mass count happiness hammer saw e.g. the, this, that, these, my e.g. a, some, three, big, unusual that we wanted Lexical items often have their own grammar (?) LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

60 2. Experiential Meaning

61 lexical organisation in terms of lexical semantic relations a holding position? 61

62 The Experiential Organisation of Lexis lexical semantic relations hyponymy meronymy opposition (e.g. antonymy, complementarity etc.) identity (synonymy) (similarity) cross-classification

63 thing living non-living animal plant natural thing artefact fish mammal insect tree flower rock water instrument building taxonomy/hyponymy 63

64 thing living non-living animal plant natural thing artefact fish mammal insect tree flower rock water instrument building system network 64

65 tool as such tool saw saw tool hammer hammer tool specified screwdriver screwdriver chisel chisel drill drill tool as such : h < tool hammer : h < hammer HYPONYMY

66 whole saw saw part saw whole saw : h < saw handle : h < handle MERONYMY handle blade parts are generalised to the extent that they are shared by different wholes

67 sharp : a < sharp hard : a < hard OPPOSITION sharp edge of object blunt

68 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 5. POLYSEMY AND HOMONYMY

69 Head 1. the part of the body which contains the eyes, ears, nose, mouth and the brain - in animals at the front of the body, in man on top, a bonobos head 2. the end where this part rests, the head of the bed, of the grave 3. the mind or brain, my heart says yes, but my head says no 4. a ruler or leader, head of state 5. a headache, Ive got a terrible head this morning 6. the front side of a coin, heads or tails? 7. a measure of height or distance, he won by a short head POLYSEMY 69

70 specifies polysemy/homonymy whole body part of body head limb chest whole bed part of bed head foot whole hammer part of hammer shaft head animal…. furniture… tool… h < head LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

71 natural thing artefact furniture use of land...... bed (32) garden for vegetables for flowers (208) 32: bed : h < bed 208 : for flowers : h < bed A condensed and simplified section of the network showing different paths for two senses of the noun BED POLYSEMY

72 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 4. COLLOCATION (a lexical co-occurrence relationship)

73 top collocates of ? Collins Wordbanks data + BNC data span of 4 words either side of node (T- and Z-scores > 9.00) abandon aboard aircraft big board captain cargo carry container plane rescue sail sea shore sink space tall crew cruise greek greenpeace hospital naval navy passenger pirate

74 top collocates of ? Collins Wordbanks data + BNC data : span of 4 words either side of node (T- and Z-scores > 9.00) aboard fish fleet hire inflatable miss moor motor narrow owner patrol people pleasure race rescue ride river rock row sail sink sea show small speed train trip vietnamese water

75 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 Subject + Main Verb + [Complement(s)] + [Adjunct(s)] Participant + Process + [Participant(s)] + [Circ(s)] Noun + Verb + Noun/Adjective + Noun thieves + steal + money + weekend Modifier + Head Temperer + Apex Quality + Thing Intensifier + Quality Adjective + NounAdverb + Adjective clever + thievesvery + clever Some very clever thieves stole the money over the weekend

76 specifies collocational relations lexical collocates or semantic classes of collocates that expound any functional element(s) associated with the functional element expounded by the lexical item in question (the collocant) may be specified by probabilistic preference statements. WordOverall frequencyJoint frequencyt-score red1049827016.098332 white1780123214.621772 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 COLOUR COLLOCATES OF WINE

77 wine (1) beer cider for modifier prefer [50% classifying, (48% red, 48% white), (30% dry, 30% medium, 20% sweet)] 50% red 0% black 0% green 50% white 0% blue 0% yellow if [wine] then LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

78 absolutely4841.65 most11740.0 so6831.41 truly1829.62 really2523.19 quite2020.99 very2818.58 just1916.67 rather1016.55 perfectly39.56 pretty39.3 deeply27.04 especially26.87 simply25.36 modifiers of wonderful (BNC through Kilgarriffs Sketch Engine)

79 absolutely2236.37 most2124.51 really1018.75 truly313.17 so611.56 increasingly311.3 just36.83 modifiers of fantastic (BNC through Kilgarriffs Sketch Engine)

80 preferences for re-entry for the tempering (intensification) of fantastic for t d (degree temperer) prefer [tempered quality, by degree, relative degree, higher degree, 0% simple intensity /30% hyperbolic intensity/ 20% simple affective emphasis/ 30% insistent affective emphasis/20%pseudo-superlative] N.B. [simple intensity] is essentially removed from system (0%) so no *very fantastic

81 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 9. TECHNICALITY

82 technicality heart specialist bell ringer campanologist if [technical] then h < campanologist, else h < bell ringer cardiologist 82

83 technicality technical bell ringer non-technical 83 technicality bell ringer campanologist

84 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 6. FIELD SPECIFICITY

85 lexical fields and genres lexical field specification leads to probabilistic preferences across the network if {gardening} prefer: grow, weed, dig, prune, plant, water, rake, etc. soil, garden, border, plants, vegetables, leaves, flower etc. ripe, young, dead, green, diseased, bumper etc. LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 many of these will be specified by preferences e.g. plant (process) will specify roses, vegetables, trees etc. as preferential complement

86 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 7. CONGRUENT VERSUS METAPHORICAL/IDIOMATIC REALISATION

87 congruent versus metaphorical/idiomatic a nuisance a pain in the neck relax take it easy enjoy oneself have a good time LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

88 congruence/metaphorical congruent a pain in the neck metaphorical congruence nuisance if metaphorical then re-enter at thing, prefer ………., else h < nuisance

89 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 8. FORMALITY

90 scale of formality inebriated intoxicated drunk sloshed pissed rat-arsed (experiential denotatative equivalence) LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 state of drunkenness if formal then h < intoxicated if casual then h < sloshed

91 LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 9. APPRAISAL AND EVALUATION

92 appraisal and evaluation affect judgement appreciation lexical resource to what degree does the resource for appraisal draw on the ideationally oriented resource (e.g. adjectival lexis)? LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

93 10. LEXICAL COHESION

94 logogenesis and lexical cohesion referent thing the Rottweiler the dog the animal the hound the beast the thing LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

95 11. CROSS-CLASSIFICATION

96 cross-classifies all lexical senses in terms of contextual and lexicogrammatical relevant features CULTURAL CLASSFICIATION FIELD SPECIFICITY FORMALITY TECHNICALITY SOCIOLINGUISTIC VARIABILITY LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

97 cross-classifies all lexical senses in terms of contextually and lexicogrammatically relevant features (multiple metafunctional determination) CULTURAL CLASSIFICATION FIELD SPECIFICITY FORMALITY TECHNICALITY SOCIOLINGUISTIC VARIABILITY food grub nosh nourishment etc LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

98 theoretical and descriptive issues with the lexis as most delicate grammar approach

99 top-down perspective computational applications of SFG execute system networks in a left-right, top-down manner, moving from major clause systems to group systems. The choice of nominal lexis is therefore procedurally dependent on systems in the clause. LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

100 system network as relation clause and verbal lexis ngp and nominal lexis adjectival group and adjectival lexis LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

101 some problematic issues with the LAMDG approach 1. lexical systems cannot (yet?) be entirely motivated formally (as are grammatical systems) 2. individual lexical senses/items often have their own external grammar 3. does lexical choice follow or precede grammatical choice? 4. Where does phraseology fit in? LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

102 1. lexical systems cannot (yet) be motivated formally It may well be that the nature of language is such that this most delicate grammar will evaporate in distinctions which are so slenderly statistical that the system has, in effect, been replaced by the open set (Halliday 1961/1976:69). LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

103 identification of lexical items by grammatical means the difference between any lexical item in the language and any other, however minimal semantically, has a grammatical reflex (reactance) no two lexical items in the language share exactly the same set of grammatical contexts In reality, these grammatical contexts are of both a grammatical and a lexical nature (hence lexicogrammatical contexts) LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

104 (co-)occurrence tendencies (from corpus linguistic investigation) collocational: a tendency to co-occur with certain lexical items or semantic classes of lexical item colligational: a tendency to co-occur in certain grammatical frameworks rather than others discoursal: a tendency to occur in certain contexts within discourses/texts registerial/generic: a tendency to occur in certain registers and genres rather than others Lexical Priming (Hoey 2005) these are tendencies, expressible probabilistically LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

105 THINGS [nouns] PROCESSES [verbs] QUALITIES [adjectives/adverbs] SPATIO-TEMPORAL AND LOGICAL RELATIONSHIPS [prepositions] lexical classes maximally distinguished by the grammar although they do cross-classify semantically e.g. please, pleasure, pleasant, pleasantly LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

106 COUNT THING NON-COUNT (MASS) classes of THING (nouns) maximally distinguished by the grammar LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

107 count THING mass increase in delicacy concrete abstract event concrete abstract event LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

108 living concrete natural non-living artefactual further increase in delicacy LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

109 tool as suchsaw toolhammer tool specifiedscrewdriver chisel drill even further increase in delicacy LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

110 whole hammer head part shaft even still further increase in delicacy can such features be motivated grammatically, and if so, how? LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

111 30.69%10424.07%419.49%5512.73%11326.15%11626.85%boat 358.72%307.48%6215.46%6516.20%11528.67%9423.41%ship 71.73%20.49%8420.79%4511.13%12129.95%14535.89%vessel genmqACS distribution of nouns by external (clause) function S = SubjectA = Adjunctm = modifier (in ngp) C = Complementq = qualifier (in ngp)g = genitive (in ngp) LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

112 14238%328%8121%11932%3610%14037%17947%boat377 14940% 4612%4813%12934%3610%15040%135 36 % ship377 20646%10323%266%12728%4310%18441%17940%vessel452 modqualqapapppspl distribution of nouns by internal relations (within the nominal group) pl = pluralps = particularised singularpp = particularised plural pa = particularised aloneqa = quantified alonequal = qualified mod = modified LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

113 TRANSITIVITY MOOD THEME VOICE LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010 the influence of lexical choice on other grammatical systems

114 mental process remember in sense of celebrate or hold a special place in ones memory he is remembered by old timers as the doctor who never sent the bill (COBUILD) the 1991 cup will always be remembered (COBUILD) 30% active 70% passive lexis or grammar first issue LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

115 Idiom The principle of idiom is that a language user has available to him or her a large number of semi-preconstructed phrases that constitute single choices, even though they might be analysable into segments (Sinclair 1987:320) Where does phraseology fit in? LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

116 phraseological expressions phraseological/idiomatic multi-word expressions can be specified by pre-determined pathways through the system network obligatory features are assigned 100%, as are all features in their path semi-fixed elements will be specified by relative probabilities (e.g. 60% - 40%) LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

117 (…) semi-preconstructed phrases that constitute single choices, even though they might be analysable into segments (Sinclair 1987:320)....you hear she's popped her clogs.... (COBUILD) The process pop and the thing clog are obligatorily co- selected clog obligatorily selects for plural clogs clogs co-selects possessive determiner (his, her, their etc) The majority of clause elements are available as with the process die (TENSE, ASPECT, POLARITY, CIRCUMSTANCE etc.) but with some important restrictions ? he was popping his clogs when I last saw him LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

118 direct die@ congruent euphemistic pass@ away dying kick-the-bucket idiomatic kick@ the bucket pop-ones-clogs pop@ + dd + clogs LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

119 Preselection all features marked preselected by rule LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

120 path 1 path 2 path 3 path 4 a pre-determined pathway through a system network 100% LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

121 because of the selection of features (and associated realisation rules) the expression will have a regular lexicogrammatical representation. this is important (and necessary) for semi-fixed expressions and even for fixed expressions which can be subject to creativity the representation will not necessarily be literal e.g pop ones clogs is a one role process, like die, so ones clogs is not a normal complement, but an extension of the verb pop. because of obligatory feature selection, the outputted expression is tantamount to unanalysed Bruce Lee popped some amyl nitrate and his clogs (COBUILD) some features of phraseological representation in the Cardiff Grammar LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010

122 phraseology, formulaicity, idiomaticity etc fixed and semi-fixed expressions that seem to be outside of the lexicogrammatical area, or somewhere between grammar and lexis by and large the thin end of the wedge to tell you the truth on a bender have a nice day LINC SUMMER SCHOOL 2010


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