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Joint injections Kathy Rainsbury February 2008. Why inject joints? Can be joint or soft tissue Inflammation – eg degenerative joint disease, bursitis,

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Presentation on theme: "Joint injections Kathy Rainsbury February 2008. Why inject joints? Can be joint or soft tissue Inflammation – eg degenerative joint disease, bursitis,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Joint injections Kathy Rainsbury February 2008

2 Why inject joints? Can be joint or soft tissue Inflammation – eg degenerative joint disease, bursitis, tendinitis Corticosteroid injection (+ needle + LA) helps decrease inflammatory rxn –(includes limiting capillary dilatation + vascular permeability)

3 Basic principles before you start History and examination Try conservative treatment first eg NSAIDs and continue after joint injection. Careful patient selection Consent Know your anatomy! Undertake as few injections as possible to settle the problem, max 3-4 in a single joint

4 Indications for injection Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Gouty arthritis Synovitis Bursitis Tendonitis Muscle trigger points Carpal tunnel syndrome

5 Inject with caution Charcot joint (neuropathic sensory loss) Tumour Neurogenic disease Active infections (eg, tuberculosis) Immune-suppressed hosts Hypothyroidism Bleeding dyscrasias

6 Contraindication to injection Adjacent osteomyelitis Bacteraemia Hemarthrosis Impending (scheduled within days) joint replacement surgery Infectious arthritis Joint prosthesis Osteochondral fracture Periarticular cellulitis / severe dermatitis/ soft tissue infection Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus Uncontrolled bleeding disorder or coagulopathy

7 Technique Object is to inject the corticosteroid with as little pain and as few complications as possible. Do not attempt any injections in the vicinity of known nerve or arterial landmarks eg lateral epicondyle of elbow ok, medial – beware ulnar nerve Never inject into substance of a tendon Sterile technique

8 Technique 2 ANTICIPATION! –Get your kit ready ie: –Needles, syringes, sterile container, LA, steroid, gloves, drapes, chlorhexidine, cotton wool, plaster. 1 or 2 needle technique Clean area – ensure solution is DRY (esp iodine)

9 Technique 3 Always withdraw syringe back first to ensure not injecting into blood vessel Inject LA first – eg lidocaine 1% or marcaine. Wait 3-5 mins then use larger bore needle to inject corticosteroid –Eg hydrocortisone acetate, methylprednisolone acetate, triamcinolone hexacetonide

10 What to warn the patient Pain returns after 2 hours, when the local anaesthetic wears off – may be worse than before. If pain is severe or increasing after 48hrs, seek advice Warn of local side effects Advise to seek help if systemic s/es develop

11 Local side effects Infection, subcutaneous atrophy, skin depigmentation, and tendon rupture (<1%). Post-injection flare in 2-5% Often are the result of poor technique, too large a dose, too frequent a dose, or failure to mix and dissolve the medications properly. NB corticosteroid short duration of action – can be as short as 2-3 weeks relief.

12 Knee injections Patient on the couch, knee slightly bent Palpate superior-lateral aspect of patella Mark 1 fingerbreadth above + lateral to this site Clean LA, corticosteroid Clean + bandage

13 Plantar fasciitis Procedure painful + no evidence for long-term benefit Pt indicate tender spot Approach from thinner skin + direct posterior- laterally Small blelbs as near to bony insertion as possible Do not inject fascia itself

14 Shoulder injection Glenohumeral joint AC joint Subacromial space Long Head of Biceps Older patients: 2-3 x/ year Younger – consider surgery if no improvement (risk rotator cuff rupture)

15 Glenohumeral joint injection 1.Pt sits, arm by side, externally rotated 2.Find sulcus between head of humerus and acromion 3.Posterolateral corner of acromion (2-3 cm inferior) 4.Direct needle anteriorly toward coracoid process 5.Insert needle to full length 6.Fluid should flow easily

16 AC joint injection 1.Palpate clavicle to distal aspect 2.Slight depression where clavicle meets acromion 3.Insert needle from anterior and superior approach 4.Direct needle inferiorly

17 Sub-acromial joint injection 1.Posterior and lateral aspect of shoulder 2.Inferior to lower edge of posterolateral acromion 3.Insert inferior to acromion at lateral shoulder 4.Direct needle toward opposite nipple 5.Insert needle to full length 6.Fluid should flow easily

18 Elbow epicondyle injection Very effective in short term – 92% Benefits do not normally persist beyond 6 weeks Lateral (tennis elbow) + medial (golfers elbow) epicondylitis Patient supine

19 Tennis elbow (lateral) 1.Arm adducted at side 2.Elbow flexed to 45 degrees 3.Wrist pronated 4.Insert needle perpendicular to skin at point of maximal tenderness 5.Insert to bone, then withdraw 1-2 mm 6.Inject corticosteroid solution slowly

20 Golfers elbow (medial) 1.Beware ulnar nerve! 2.Rest arm in comfortable abducted position 3.Elbow flexed to 45 degrees 4.Wrist supinated 5.Point of maximal tenderness - insert to bone, then withdraw 1-2 mm 6.Inject corticosteroid solution slowly

21 De Quervains tenosynovitis Inflammation of thumb extensor tendons -Extensor pollicis brevis -Abductor pollicis longus Occurs where tendons cross radial styloid

22 De Quervains tenosynovitis 1.Maximally abduct thumb (accentuates abductor tendon) Injection site 2.Snuffbox at base of thumb 3.Aim degrees proximally toward radial styloid 4.Insert needle between the 2 tendons (not in tendon) 5.Do not inject if paraesthesias (sensory branch radial nerve)


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