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Pre-Class Guided Reading: Early Civilizations. HOW DO YOU KNOW THAT? What type of scientist researches prehistoric times? Archaeologist – Study of material.

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Presentation on theme: "Pre-Class Guided Reading: Early Civilizations. HOW DO YOU KNOW THAT? What type of scientist researches prehistoric times? Archaeologist – Study of material."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pre-Class Guided Reading: Early Civilizations

2 HOW DO YOU KNOW THAT? What type of scientist researches prehistoric times? Archaeologist – Study of material remains of human life & activities What kind of artifacts do archaeologist find? Anthropologist – Study humans & how they interact with their environment & each other Puzzle

3 Stone Age Paleolithic Period, Mesolithic Period, and Neolithic Period about 3 million years ago


5 Pre-Stone Age People Eastern Africa – gathered – may have hunted

6 Early Achievements Stone tools and weapons Controlled fire – 200,000 to 400,000 – video – I have Made Fire videoI have Made Fire Language Nomads: people who move place to place for survival - hunted/adapted to climates Ice Age – melting glaciers = rivers – New clothes

7 HUMAN EXPANSION Spread of humans – Origin – Europe & Asia – Ice Bridge – Alaska & Canada – Settlement What are basic human needs? Nomads Fire – 750,000 years ago – Home is where the warmth is

8 1 st Agricultural Revolution 10,000 BC– river valleys Learned to farm and domesticate animals – Food produces – Pastoralists - are people who live by tending and breeding domesticated animals. Effects – Permanent communities – Increased population – Development of government and religion – New technologies – Crash Course Agricultural Revolution Video Crash Course Agricultural Revolution Video

9 First Civilizations Highly organized group of people with their own language and way of living

10 Location Developed in river valleys – South Asia, East Asia, North Africa

11 Government Organized people for building projects – Palaces, irrigation systems Priest-Kings – Government and religion closely connected

12 Religion Priest-Kings – Priests alone knew ceremonies to please the god Connected to nature

13 Specialized Jobs Artisans – skilled craft workers – Weavers, metalworkers Merchants Traders Farmers

14 Social Classes 1.King 2.Priests and Nobles – owned and controlled land 3.Government Officials and Merchants 4.Farmers and Artisan – Majority 5.Slaves – Conquered people

15 Record Keeping System of writing – pictographs – records for taxes and religious purposes

16 Diffusion Inventions were borrowed, changed, and improved by other civilizations Civilizations thrived and advanced through diffusion

17 The World in 1300

18 Islamic Civilizations Spain to China Trade brings wealth to.. – Middle East – West African Kingdoms – Delhi Sultans in Northern India

19 China Mongols controlled trade routes (Silk Road) Chinese technology

20 Empires in America Aztec and Incas

21 Europe Fringes of trade routes – Less developed than China, Middle East, India because of limited trade and fighting

22 Why did Islamic Civilizations and China become powerful by the 1300’s? Trade – Trade brings wealth, benefits of diffusion and power

23 Development of Civilization

24 The Nomadic Society The nomadic society, also known as hunters and gatherers, are constantly on the move in order to acquire food sources. Since plants change with the seasons and animals follow the plants, human beings in a nomadic society therefore must follow these food resources around. The members of the tribe rely on the interdependence of others in order to survive. Interdependence is the mutual dependence between people, groups, states, etc., for goods, resources, and labor. Roles in the nomadic society are based on survival skills and experience.

25 The Agricultural Society

26 Villages and Towns VillageTown The Specialized Society

27 City-State

28 The Civilized Society Civilizations developed with complex organizations which were highly specialized in all elements of culture. Writing The first writing developed to keep track of trade. Scribes were officials who could read and write and kept the records of the religion/government. Priest-kings led the city-states as both rulers of the government and religion. Interdependence developed between regions. River systems increased in significance to control trade. City-states combined to form kingdoms and contiguous empires. Social Classes developed based on specialization The caste systems developed in some societies in order to maintain social order. Roman Empire Persian Empire Ottoman Empire

29 The Industrialized Society

30 Guided Reading Answers 1.Developed better tools and weapons 2.Learned to farm and domesticate animals 3.Conditions favored farming 4.Leaders of government and believed to speak directly with gods 5.Official needed to keep records 6.Diffusion through travelers and traders 7.Controlled Trade routes to the west 8.Fringes of trade routes and fighting 9.B10. A11. C

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