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Digital Preservation and Management. Preserving Digital Resources: Why is it an Issue? Technology obsolescence Digital media life expectancy Variety of.

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Presentation on theme: "Digital Preservation and Management. Preserving Digital Resources: Why is it an Issue? Technology obsolescence Digital media life expectancy Variety of."— Presentation transcript:

1 Digital Preservation and Management

2 Preserving Digital Resources: Why is it an Issue? Technology obsolescence Digital media life expectancy Variety of file formats Digital rights management Costs Organizational resistance

3 Assumptions Digital preservation is more challenging and complex than preservation of analog objects Digital preservation is more than a technical preservation strategy THE solution doesnt exist Digital preservation needs to be integrated into organizational culture

4 Assumptions Change Happens File formats matter Non-proprietary is best; de facto standards are good System architecture and documentation matters Open systems that can be moved to other platforms Technology isnt the whole solution Policies, planning, and resources The community is just beginning to work on these issues – and everything is new and is changing

5 Terms Digital Object: Any resource that can be stored or manipulated by a computer Digitized Resources: Any resource that has been digitized from an analog source Born Digital: Any resource that was created digitally and will be managed and preserved digitally

6 Terms Digital preservation/archiving: Storage, maintenance, and access to a digital object over the long term, usually as a consequence of applying one or more preservation strategies

7 Terms Viability: maintenance of the bitstream Renderability: viewable by humans and processable by computers Understandability: interpretable by humans Fixity: The state or quality of being fixed or unchanged. Reliability: the digital objects are created in a trustworthy way. They are what they say they are Authenticity: the digital object remains reliable over time

8 Digital Preservation Strategies Bitstream Copying Refreshing Durable/Persistent Media Technology Preservation Digital Archaeology Analog Backups Migration Replication Reliance on Standards Normalization Canonicalization Emulation Encapsulation Universal Virtual Computer

9 Trusted Digital Repositories A repository whose mission is to provide reliable, long term access to managed digital resources to a community, now and in the future.

10 Trusted Digital Repositories Attributes Administrative responsibility Organizational viability Financial sustainability Technological suitability System security Procedural accountability OAIS compliant

11 Trusted Digital Repositories Implementation approaches will vary Approach will depend on: Context Users (designated community) Underlying issue remains constant Functionality Reliability and authenticity

12 Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model Conceptual framework for an archival system dedicated to preserving and maintaining access to digital information over the long term Consists of people and systems w.html w.html (overview) ocuments/pdf/CCSDS B-1.pdf ocuments/pdf/CCSDS B-1.pdf (standard)

13 OAIS: What is it? Any organization or system charged with the task of preserving information over the long term and making it accessible to a specific group of users An OAIS archive is expected to meet certain minimum responsibilities

14 OAIS: Minimum Responsibilities Negotiate and accept appropriate information from information creators Obtain sufficient control over the information to ensure preservation Determine the scope of the Designated Community (the users) Ensure that users can understand the information without assistance from the information creators

15 OAIS: Minimum Responsibilities Follow documented policies and procedures Ensure preservation Authenticate information Disseminate (provide access to) information Make the information available to the Designated Community

16 Preservation Planning Monitoring technology and users; developing preservation actions Preservation planning is part of the administration functions of any archival program; OAIS has highlighted it as a distinct function Importance of constant and ongoing management and planning for digital preservation call for this

17 Components of a Digital Preservation Program TDR and OAIS imply that there are three components of a digital preservation program Resources Framework (trust) Organizational Infrastructure (policy) Technological Infrastructure (technology)

18 Resource Framework Nothing is sustainable without ongoing commitment of resources A high level commitment to digital preservation must demonstrate an adequate resource commitment Deliverables that meet the goals Line item budgets Staff commitment Strategic planning Projections for costs and funding scenarios

19 Resource Framework Commitment of resources (time, money, staff) implies organizational commitment and reflects organizational priorities Staffing is the expensive part! Curatorial functions Appraising, acquiring, processing, metadata creation, ongoing management, access Technical functions Computer operation, system administrator, database administrator, storage administrator, application programmer, preservation expertise

20 Planning Identify stakeholders and their roles Educate All partners need a desired outcome Tangible or intangible Buy-in Mission, goals, outcomes

21 Organizational Infrastructure Organizational and Curatorial Responsibilities Policy framework Operational Responsibilities Planning framework Functions and roles

22 Organizational and Curatorial Responsibilities – Policy Framework Strategic Plan Collection Policy Security Policy Preservation Policy Access Policy

23 Strategic Plan Overview and scope of the digital preservation program and its context Mission/Purpose High level goals and objectives Commitment to OAIS and community best practices Related documentation and who is responsible Administrative/Oversight structure High level audience statement

24 Audience (Designated Community) OAIS requirement Explicit All collections Per collection Audience=assumed knowledge and resources

25 Impacts of Audience Identification The kinds of collections you will accept The kind of descriptive information (metadata) you will provide The kind of services you will offer Software, translators The kind of preservation actions chosen Significant properties The access mechanisms you need to provide

26 Collection Policy What kinds of digital resources are you going to collect and digitally preserve? Content considerations Are you focusing on a specific content area? Rights management considerations Metadata responsibilities and requirements Requirements for documenting acquisitions

27 Collection Policy Technical considerations Digitization with no physical counterpart Digitization with a physical counterpart Anything born digital Born digital that cant be reformatted to eye readable

28 Collection Policy Are there further limitations on what you will collect? (examples) Non-proprietary formats only Specific formats only (TIFF) Systems/databases only Distinct documents only Minimum amount of metadata required at time of acquisition Materials that can be digitally reformatted in a specific way Move everything to TIFF? Move everything to XML?

29 Documenting Acquisitions OAIS requires agreements with depositors that address acquisition, maintenance, access and withdrawal Should already be using these kinds of agreements May need to revise for digital materials, to include What happens if functionality is lost? Is reformatting to eye readable an acceptable preservation option? What kind of access can you provide and is it acceptable? Are there digital-specific copyright issues to consider?

30 Documenting Acquisitions May need to revise for digital materials, to include Metadata creation responsibilities Rights management What level of functionality will be available from the digital repository?

31 Security Policy System security Physical environment Backup and recovery Fixity of the data (reliability) Disaster preparedness and response Planning and documentation requirements Assign responsibility

32 Preservation Policy Commitment to digital preservation Goals of digital preservation Scope of materials Formats Metadata suppliers Access commitments

33 Preservation Policy Definition of overall preservation strategy Are there limitations? What happens if preservation actions go wrong? Is reformatting to eye-readable an acceptable preservation action? Under what circumstances? Planning and documentation requirements Responsibilities assigned

34 Operational Responsibilities Based on work done by OAIS community to define the principle obligations of an OAIS compliant repository Appropriate planning documentation will be necessary to carry out operations Specific planning based on strategic plan and policies

35 Operational Responsibilities Acquisition Physical and intellectual control Determines audience (designated community) Follows policies and procedures to assure preservation of authentic information Access Promotes development of best practices and standards

36 Acquisition Development of collection policies Includes specific required formats, if appropriate Procedures and workflows for copyright clearance for access and preservation Metadata specifications and implementation Procedures to ensure the authenticity of submitted material Assessment of the completeness of the submission Documentation of all acquisition transactions

37 Control Preparing the materials for storage Content analysis Significant properties Verification of metadata Unique and persistent identifier assigned Authenticity and integrity check Move to archival storage

38 Preservation Actions Monitoring of technology and the digital materials Technology watch Preservation planning Classes of material Actions to be taken Documentation of actions and results Functionality considerations

39 Access A system for resource discovery Mechanism for authenticity check Access control mechanisms User support

40 Standards and Best Practices Promote and utilize Results in economies of scale Creation of high quality digital resources that are more amenable to preservation Work with software suppliers, potential depositors, designated communities

41 In-house Significant investment Technical expertise Workflow impacts Maintain physical control

42 Outsource Can the service provider meet your needs and requirements? Less investment? No cost models to show if this is accurate Less reliance on in-house technical expertise and infrastructure necessary What happens if the service provider goes out of business?

43 Combination Build what you can Build what you need that cant be outsourced Buy what you cant build Now, digital repositories…

44 OAIS Metadata Implications Metadata is data that facilitates the management, description, and preservation of a digital object or aggregation of digital objects. Standards and best practices are developed to promote the creation of metadata to it supports interoperability and collaboration. Metadata sets Metadata encoding schema

45 Types of Metadata Descriptive Technical Structural Administrative Preservation

46 Metadata Each type of metadata will be needed to facilitate the preservation and usability of born digital material Use standards and best practice metadata sets Think interoperability Technologically Element sets

47 Immediate Actions Get Your Team Together Identify your needs Do you really need a digital repository right NOW? Is there an interim solution until the field is more settled? Agree on vision and goals Plan

48 Immediate Actions Discuss strategy Communication Any institutional repository depends on a relationship with IT staff Priorities Language barriers

49 Immediate Actions Identify the organizational infrastructure changes that need to be made Investigate existing tools and digital repositories Learn and experiment with existing tools Make high level decisions What kind of digital materials are we going to commit to preserving?

50 Immediate Actions Funding Inventories of digital resources Establish metadata standards and practices Identify and understand users

51 Take Home Concepts Use standards and best practices The solution is complex; the tools are incomplete Organizational and technological challenges Learn about what others are doing and build on it Dont reinvent the wheel

52 Take Home Concepts Resources are the issue People, not computers! Expect and plan for change This is all a work in progress First generation technologies, tools, understanding of issues You will redo work

53 Existing Tools

54 Tools Technical tools Interfaces, infrastructure and technologies that allow you to do the work necessary to create, manage and preserve digital resources Examples might include: Metadata creation File format verification Algorithms for fixity checks Appraisal/processing tools Access tools – indexing, finding aids, etc. Acquisition tools

55 Tools Few currently exist Options Wait Build your own Modify existing tools Use what there is

56 Tools DSpace Fedora TM LOCKSS Greenstone OCLC Digital Archive

57 DSpace A specialized content management system that: manages and distributes digital items allows for creation, indexing and searching of metadata supports long term preservation of material designed to make submission and administration easy

58 DSpace Developed by MIT and Hewlett Packard Based on freely available software can use proprietary software as well with minor modifications Customizable Academic community is especially active in the use of this implementation UNIX based; written in Java


60 DSpace No support available Preservation is done locally and is not inherent in the system Downloads and specific information at Dspace Demo - MIT Press

61 Fedora TM Flexible Extensible Digital Object and Repository Architecture An Open-Source Digital Repository Management System – the architectural underpinning or plumbing Used to support institutional repositories, digital libraries, content management, digital asset management, scholarly publishing, and digital preservation

62 Fedora TM Cornell and University of Virginia, funded by Mellon Freely available Based on open source software and web based technologies Limited interfaces Management Access Access Lite

63 Fedora TM Architectural Model

64 Fedora TM Installs on Windows PC Packaged to get up and running quickly Demo set of objects Scales with hardware in a production environment No support available Plumbing only; no inherent preservation Downloads and information available at

65 LOCKSS Lots of Copies Keeps Stuff Safe To safeguard web journals libraries subscribe to Mimics the way libraries manage paper collections Redundant, distributed, decentralized

66 LOCKSS Works only for HTTP/HTML standard file types (html, jpeg, gif, pdf, etc) Open source code It can be modified Designed to be low cost, low time Will run on a dedicated PC PC specs available on the LOCKSS site


68 LOCKSS Publishers can prevent LOCKSS from caching their content Publishers must give libraries permission Licensing language available on the LOCKSS web site Freely available No support (ease of use is highlighted) Preservation is not inherent

69 Greenstone A suite of software for building and distributing digital library collections Produced by the New Zealand Digital Library Project at the University of Waikato Developed and distributed in cooperation with UNESCO and the Human Info NGO. Open-source, multilingual software, issued under the terms of the GNU General Public License.

70 Greenstone Should in fact work on any Windows or Unix system. Local library Web library Greenstone Librarian Interface The Organizer




74 Greenstone Documentation is available Installer's Guide Developer's Guide Paper to Collection Inside Greenstone Collections MG/MG++ Workshops are also held Listservs for implementors Some technical support available Not preservation oriented

75 OCLC Digital Archive Standards based OAIS compliant METS encoded dissemination packages Phased support for various formats and material type Currently text and still image Can integrate with current library selection and cataloging activities Content owner manages the archived objects and determines access Known costs Offers bit preservation

76 OCLC Digital Archive Functions Harvest from web preview and review Metadata creation Ingest From web or batch Access management public or restricted Viewing Dissemination Reports Periodic Audits of Objects in the Archive Frequent Backups and Disaster Prevention

77 Digital Archive Web Services

78 End User Access

79 OCLC Digital Archive Development Preservation policy and plans in progress Expanding formats and object types accepted Active in development of preservation metadata standard and will comply Active in developing digital repository certification Additional information available at:

80 Other Tools Australian PANDAS-PANDORA CONTENTdm (content management) SDSC Data Grid Technology Web harvesting tools E-records management software Document management systems Data warehousing technology XML parsing tools SDSC and others

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