Some thoughts... OAIS is a conceptual reference model and not a system design model Functions in the OAIS Reference Model may not necessarily correspond with the functional modules of a system that would implement the model. (Organisational needs vary!) Functionality of an actual digital repository may be much more limited than in the OAIS Reference Model, and may include additions Take from it only what you need to manage your digital collections
Process and Activities Business and strategic planning, including costs and fund raising Resource creation (not included in OAIS model) Resource preparation and enhancement (not included in OAIS) Resource presentation: access and delivery (Access) Resource curation / Data Management (Ingest) Preservation planning (Preservation Planning) Archival storage (Archival Store) Management and administration (Admin + bits of data management)
Process and Activities Strategic and business planning; fund raising What is the purpose of your data creation efforts? Are you undertaking a one-off project or establishing something longer term If the latter is it short, medium or long-term? Will you be providing a service for others to use? What skills will you need What infrastructure? What will it cost? How will you raise the money? Do you want to do everything in-house or outsource some or all of the tasks?
Process and Activities Resource creation: the methods used to convert analogue information into raw digital data Scanning Digital photography Transcription OCR Etc. etc.
Process and Activities Resource preparation and enhancement: methods used to transform raw data into information Modeling and design of the resources information structure Normalisation and enhancement of data Structuring Encoding Manipulation Adding and creating metadata
Process and Activities Resource presentation: providing access, delivery and use of the resource Static or interactive web-based services; Off-line services Resource discovery On-line browsing and selection Requests from users Coordinates requests and execution of requests Applies controls to limit access as needed Generates information for dissemination Delivers information (data) to users
Process and Activities Resource curation: management of the resource over the long-term Maintaining schema, view definitions, referential integrity Receiving/managing updates & additions to data & metadata Version Control Performing quality assurance Generating archive versions to archives data formatting and documentation standards Extracting descriptive information for data management and to support search and retrieval functions Coordinating updates and transfer of the data and metadata to appropriate places
Process and Activities Preservation planning Evaluating contents of archive; periodically recommending updates to migrate current holdings Developing and maintaining recommendations for archive standards and policies Monitoring changes in technology environment, users service requests, and knowledge base Developing and maintaining detailed migration plans, software prototypes and test plans
Process and Activities Archival storage Receiving data from curation process and adding to permanent storage Managing storage hierarchy Refreshing/replacing media Performing error checks Providing disaster recovery capabilities Duplicating contents for off-site storage
Process and Activities Management and administration Negotiating agreements and licences Managing IPR, copyright issues Managing quality control and audit process Monitoring systems operations Providing inventories, reports, updates Establishing and maintaining archive standards and policies Providing user support
Requirements OAIS-Type Repository CreationPreparation AccessCuration Preservation Planning Archival store Management and Administration Money Skills Strategic Business Planning Infrastructure
Space Equipment Facilities Project Management Systems and tools Software and hardware Standards – technical, metadata etc.
Skills Scholars / Curators / digital librarians (creation, acquisition and curation) Scanner operatives, photographers etc. etc. Information professionals (metadata management & creation) Computer scientists (systems design and development, management tools) Preservation professionals (preservation planning and management, migration and emulation services) Systems administrators (systems management, disc partitioning, refreshment, back-up) Managers and administrators: project, process, strategic and financial etc.
Costs Staff salaries and benefits Operating expenses Software System equipment Other?
Solutions: In-house Repository ….is a set of services that a organisation or institution offers to the members of its community for the creation, management and dissemination of digital materials created by the organisation or institution and its community members. It is most essentially an organisational commitment to the stewardship of these digital materials, including long- term preservation where appropriate, as well as organisation and access or distribution. Lynch, C., ARL Bimonthly Report 226, http://www.arl.org/newsltr/226/ir.htm
A very long quote…… As with computing, the cost of data repositories (done correctly) will be dominated by the recurring costs of personnel performing curation, maintenance and upgrade,and providing user advice, assistance, and support. The most sophisticated of these personnel need professional skills in the relevant aspects of information management and information technology (e.g. databases, archival file systems, building portals),and will be developing and maintaining custom software. By using a combination of high-speed networks and local high-speed caches, there is no hard requirement to co-locate professional staff with physical storage particularly staff performing data acquisition and curation functions as opposed to disk partitioning, regeneration, and backup functions. As with computing, there is need for support personnel at local institutions, in discipline-specific groups (often located in centers),and centralized in centers. Although further analysis is needed, we expect that the most efficient approach will be to have relatively centralized storage hardware (with supporting staff) but distributed data acquisition and curation personnel. http://www.communitytechnology.org/nsf_ci_report/report.pdf (page 77)
Solutions: Sharing; Outsourcing Sharing infrastructure and costs Institutional consortia Regional consortia Local/national alliances Federated services Local/national/regional Outsourcing some or all of the tasks Creation Preservation
Example: Shared Archives Model Institutional Repository Accessions institutional collections and provides access and delivery services Metadata integrated into preservation metadata store and on-line catalogue facilities Preservation System Harvest preservation (and discovery) metadata Capture preservation copies Users Preservation Services Risk assessment process Preservation Service
Benefits and Challenges Benefits Shared infrastructure Shared expertise Effective use of resources – human, technical and financial Shared costs Experts doing what they are best at Challenges Creating partnerships (partnerships or outsourcing?) Agreement on policy and procedures Establishing relationships of trust Consistency of practice and outputs
Now its your turn……. Recap: Questions to Ask What is the purpose of your data creation efforts? Are you undertaking a one-off project or establishing something longer term If the latter is it short, medium or long-term? Will you be providing a service for others to use? What skills will you need What infrastructure? What will it cost? Do you want to do everything in-house or outsource some or all of the tasks?
Resource creation Skills? Infrastructure? Likely costs (high, medium, low)? Possible solutions (in-house, outsource, other)? Other issues?
Resource enhancement Skills? Infrastructure? Likely costs (high, medium, low)? Possible solutions (in-house, outsource, other)? Other issues?
Resource presentation Skills? Infrastructure? Likely costs (high, medium, low)? Possible solutions (in-house, outsource, other)? Other issues?
Resource curation Skills? Infrastructure? Likely costs (high, medium, low)? Possible solutions (in-house, outsource, other)? Other issues?
Preservation planning Skills? Infrastructure? Likely costs (high, medium, low)? Possible solutions (in-house, outsource, other)? Other issues?
Archival storage Skills? Infrastructure? Likely costs (high, medium, low)? Possible solutions (in-house, outsource, other)? Other issues?
Management and administration Skills? Infrastructure? Likely costs (high, medium, low)? Possible solutions (in-house, outsource, other)? Other issues?