Presentation on theme: "Contraception; the role of the midwife Dr Catherine Angell."— Presentation transcript:
Contraception; the role of the midwife Dr Catherine Angell
Aims of this session Discuss the midwife and public health Debate the importance of contraception discussions with women Identify the issues relating to discussing contraception with women at this time Consider important considerations for women relating to contraception Discuss breastfeeding and contraception Use a series of case studies to consider role of midwife and the appropriateness of different methods for different women
The midwife and public health You must act as an advocate for those in your care, helping them to access relevant health and social care, information and support (NMC, The Code, 2007) More than ever it is essential that midwives understand their pivotal and life enhancing role in public health (Edwards and Byrom, 2007)
Contraception as a personal and a public health issue Personal issues: – Family size - money, housing, etc – Age gap between children – Recovery from last pregnancy and birth – Family and relationship changes Public health issues: – Population growth – Infant feeding behaviours – Child health – Womans long term health – Sexual health
Critical thinking Get into groups of 4-5. Discuss one of these statements in relation to the midwifes role and contraception. To make choices women need information (Evans, 2005) Discussing contraceptive choices is a matter of finding the least worst option (Belfield et al., 2009) During pregnancy and the postpartum period women may be more receptive to different methods of contraception (Cwiak et al, 2004)
What happens in practice Only 4% of women had opportunity to discuss contraception antenatally Hospital postnatal discussions before discharge often very brief Few women leave hospital with contraceptive supplies Most definitive advice given at 6 week check Missed opportunity, especially for young or vulnerable women with limited previous use of contraception (Evans, 2005)
Issues relating to contraceptive discussions What barriers can you think of for women when seeking contraceptive advice? Time, energy, embarrassment Lack of understanding of fertility and reproduction Social, cultural, religious issues Changes in body and sex life after child birth Gap between knowing about and acting on Lack of continuity of care/interprofessional working
Fertility after birth It is impossible to predict the return of fertility Ovulation occurs before the first period in most women For non breastfeeding women the earliest time women are likely to ovulate again is 25 days after birth...the average is 45 days Feeding method is the most important determinant of return of fertility 50% of couples have had penetrative sex within 6 weeks of birth...
What are the options? Get into groups of 4 or 5. List as many contraceptive methods as you can in 2 minutes....
What did you find? Combined pill Progesterone only pill Emergency contraception Contraceptive injection Contraceptive patch Contraceptive implant Intrauterine system (IUS) or Mirena Vaginal ring Male/female condoms Intrauterine device (IUD) Diaphragm Cap Sterilisation – male/female Natural method Breastfeeding
Knowledge grid Each group has an information sheet from NHS website, FPA or Brook on one method. Read the sheet. Note key points to feed back to the class and put onto our knowledge grid Look at issues of – Reliability – STI protection – When to use after childbirth – Combining with breastfeeding – A major advantage – A major disadvantage
An extra note about breastfeeding Breastfeeding is the most widely used form of contraception in the world Breastfeeding can be up to 98% effective in preventing pregnancy BUT breastfeeding must be – Exclusive – Regular – Baby under 6 months old
Important considerations for women What do you think is important for women when choosing contraceptive methods? What and who influences their decisions? Are some issues more important than others? Are everyones priorities the same? In your groups write down as many considerations as you can
Influences on womens choices Pregnancy prevention STI prevention Health considerations Breastfeeding Mechanical v. Hormonal Previous infertility Future plans Ease of use Cost Lifestyle Remembering Embarrassment Partners views Health care providers Religious views ?
Contraception for individuals... everyone is different Get into groups of 4 or 5 Read the scenario you have been given Discuss the scenario. You may want to focus on: – What is important to that woman? – What health needs does she have? – What methods might be appropriate for her? – What care can you offer her?
Fiona Fiona has just had a normal birth. This was her 4 th baby in 6 years. She had a PPH and is anaemic and very tired. She is breastfeeding. She is in a stable relationship with a long term partner. They have not decided whether their family is complete yet.
Geraldine Geraldine met her partner when she was 38 and he was 49. She is now 42. She has some difficulty conceiving and had IVF for this pregnancy. Geraldine has just had her first baby by LSCS. She is breastfeeding but wants to combine this with formula as soon as possible. She and her partner do not anticipate having another child.
Helen Helen is 22. She has just had her first baby at home. She is breastfeeding. She conceived her baby whilst on a year working in the Caribbean. She was taking the pill at the time. She came home to stay with her parents for the birth but plans to go abroad again with her baby to live and work in the surf shop that she left prior to coming home. She has no partner there but lots of friends who can support her.
Izzy Izzy has just had her 2 nd child. She is 19 and lives in temporary council accommodation. She took the pill for a while when she had a regular partner but didnt like going to see her GP and her prescription ran out. She sometimes uses condoms. She has no partner at present and has no plans to start a relationship.
Jennifer Jennifer has just had her 3rd baby, and her 3rd LSCS. She has had pre-eclampsia twice, which was worse on this occasion. She is very keen not to have more children. She and her husband are both 40 and are in a stable and long term relationship.
Karen Karen has just had her second baby. She is breastfeeding at present and hopes to continue for a while. She and her partner did not use contraceptives between pregnancies and they have not thought about contraception yet. Although they might want another baby Karen wants something fairly reliable for the time being. She thinks that she gets side effects, such as weight gain, from hormone based methods.
Feedback Did you end up with a single choice or a range of choices for each woman? Was there one or numerous factors that might influence her choice? Do you think your own views or experiences influenced the choices you thought would be suitable?
The role of the midwife What do you think is the midwifes role... – Encouraging planning of contraception? – Discussion of the options? – Referral?
A note about folic acid... Taking folic acid prior to conception is beneficial in reducing neural tube defects Discussing this with women may encourage use of folic acid when they plan next pregnancy This is an important aspect of family planning
Final thought...safe sex in pregnancy Women may not worry about the risk of pregnancy in the antenatal period... BUT for some having unprotected sex in pregnancy may leave them at risk from STIs