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What is Digital Publishing? Brad Scott Digital Publishing Consulting Kings College, London 23 November 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "What is Digital Publishing? Brad Scott Digital Publishing Consulting Kings College, London 23 November 2009."— Presentation transcript:

1 What is Digital Publishing? Brad Scott Digital Publishing Consulting Kings College, London 23 November 2009

2 Aims of this talk To give broad overview of the shape of digital publishing To illustrate the challenges facing publishers To indicate how the kinds of skills and roles are changing as a consequence of digital publishing

3 Topics Introduction Crowds and communities Product types and business models Creating digital products How publishers are changing Convergences Future and issues

4 Brad Scott 1990-2001: Routledge: Digital publisher 2001-2008: Semantico: Account director 2008-present: Consulting

5 Brad Scott Digital publisher Project management, data, marketing plan Arden Shakespeare Wellesley Index to Victorian Periodicals Projects with UK National Archives

6 Brad Scott Data consulting, project planning Oxford University Press Modern Language Association Wiley-Blackwell Cambridge University Press Taylor & Francis Palgrave Macmillan Brill NV

7 Digital Publishing Publishing: Making public Dissemination Communicating Not necessarily printed or written

8 Digital Publishing digital publishing is "a different paradigm, a different set of relationships, a different way of doing business"... publishers are still resisting giving the marketplace what it wants. "It's still a book business … and it needs to become a reader business." Sara Lloyd (Macmillan), October 2009

9 Digital Publishing Publishing conglomerates Capitalist commoditization of 'content' + Digital technologies (especially the web) Potential for democratic access, creation, participation = Tension

10 Digital Publishing Web as generative environment Freedom to create (and destroy) Other technologies more limited Potential for corporate control Jonathan Zittrain The Future of the Internet 2008

11 "I have been increasingly convinced that the business model based on the printed monograph was not merely failing but broken. Why try to fight your way through this? Why try to remain in territory you know is doomed? Scholarly presses will be primarily digital in a decade. Why not seize the opportunity to do it now?" Phil Pochoda, director of University of Michigan Press

12 Digital Publishing To a small publisher, the net looks like an unparalleled opportunity to find and fill real user needs, to talk directly with customers and to create information products that serve them. Tim O'Reilly, 1995

13 Digital Publishing Sara Lloyd: key issues for publishers Online communication between author and reader, and reader and reader is facilitated by publishers; and Publishers need to work out how to do the job of entertaining and informing rather than how to transform printed books into digital books

14 Statistics 60% of publishers will have less than 10% of revenue from digital in 2009 In January 1994 there were 623 websites Facebook has 300 million active users Over 4bn mobile users

15 Statistics

16 Crowds and Communities Open Source, Creative Commons Web 2.0 [2004] information sharing interoperability user-centered design collaboration

17 Crowds and Communities Web 2.0 web-based communities web applications social-networking sites video-sharing sites wikis blogs mashups folksonomies

18 Crowds and Communities Wikipedia Quantity is no substitute for expertise Open Feedback Publishing System (OReilly)

19 Crowds and Communities

20 Crowds and Communities

21 Crowds and Communities Conferences: Text Encoding Initiative 12 Nov 2009

22 Objectives of digital strategy Ensure financial stability Engage with customer via the media they want Separate commissioning and creation of content from presentation Deliver and disseminate content faster Enable re-use of content Focus editorial resource on services rather than products Streamline workflows

23 Revenue generation Sell product outright Sell subscription Sell advertising space Syndicate content Give it away to support an (expensive) event Get authors to pay (or comment)

24 Revenue generation Cory Doctorow With a Little Help Self publishing Free for download and audio for hard copies + ask for donation Requires community support

25 Revenue generation

26 Varieties of digital publishing We are all digital publishers now

27 Varieties of digital publishing

28 Varieties of digital publishing

29 Varieties of digital publishing

30 Varieties of digital publishing How to make sense of it all?

31 Varieties of digital publishing No single delivery method Different services types/user technologies Aggregators Ebooks Other digital services Mobiles/PDA Apps Print on Demand

32 Varieties of digital publishing Aggregators Low risk for licensing publishers Low return Ovid (hundreds of journals, databases, books) CSA/ProQuest Credo (Xrefer) And Google...

33 Varieties of digital publishing

34 Varieties of digital publishing

35 Varieties of digital publishing Ebooks Books read using a portable device Books delivered as pdfs online (myiLibrary, ebrary, Dawsonera or Cambridge Collections Online) Any digital book content

36 Varieties of digital publishing

37 Varieties of digital publishing Ebooks:

38 Varieties of digital publishing Ebooks: Current readers not ideal for student or academic use Formats: Adobe, epub, MS Lit, mobipocket, Kindle, BBeB, OEB, DX Impact on print sales? But, ebooks are no longer a nice to have

39 Varieties of digital publishing Ebook take-up Four percent of British have read an e-book US publishing net sales 2008 = $24.3 billion US ebooks $113 million 2008 up 68.4% = 0.5% of turnover T&F: 22,000 titles = 10% total turnover

40 Varieties of digital publishing Ebook platforms Credo Reference EBL MyiLibrary NetLibrary ebrary Dawsonera

41 Varieties of digital publishing Dawsonera PDF transformations, slicing, encryption, watermarking DRM ebook delivery platform Flexible business rules Metered usage eCommerce integration

42 Varieties of digital publishing

43 Varieties of digital publishing

44 Varieties of digital publishing

45 Varieties of digital publishing

46 Varieties of digital publishing Audio content Themed collection

47 Varieties of digital publishing Single platform: multiple sites – ORO Core – ORO Premium – Syndication – Digital Reference Shelf

48 Varieties of digital publishing Book + Multiple choice questions

49 Varieties of digital publishing User modifications

50 Varieties of digital publishing Linking

51 Varieties of digital publishing

52 Varieties of digital publishing Apps iPhone, Googles Android OS, a Blackberry or other PDA 100,000 apps on iStore, 2bn downloads

53 Varieties of digital publishing Winged Chariots The Surprise (59p)

54 Varieties of digital publishing Augmented reality

55 Varieties of digital publishing

56 Varieties of digital publishing Publishing platforms Atypon Ingenta Semantico iFactory xTF: California Digital Library in-house

57 Varieties of digital publishing Business models Subscription (individual, university) Pay per view Metered access Open Access Free/donations

58 Delivering digital products Data Hardware Site code Access control / Digital Rights Management Integration with other systems Discovery

59 Delivering digital products Data Articles/chapters/books Classification/taxonomy Metadata (publisher info / DOIs / SEO) Images/video/sound Exams and test data Statistics Button text etc (internationalised content) User-generated content

60 Delivering digital products

61 Delivering digital products Data ALWAYS the biggest risk Metadata/classification Multimedia Statistics User-generated content

62 Delivering digital products

63 Delivering digital products Access control Fundamental part of online publishing infrastructure Who/what/when Credentials and identity management (Shibboleth) Statistics (COUNTER, ICOLC)

64 Delivering digital products Integrating with other systems Order processing eCommerce Editorial workflow Royalties and financial Corporate website

65 Delivering digital products Discovery Google Yahoo Microsoft Federated search/Metasearch (Opensearch, Z39.50) Metadata harvesting (OAI-PMH) Search Engine Optimisation

66 Delivering digital products

67 Delivering digital products Process In-house or outsource? Project team Initial product conception Tendering Design phase Content creation Development/implementation Sales and marketing Post launch

68 Delivering digital products In-house or outsource What is required? Get advice Are skills available? Strategic planning: mixture of outsourcing and in- house activities

69 Delivering digital products Project team Publisher – Project sponsor – Marketing – Data/Production – Project manager Developer – Account manager – Project manager – Lead developer

70 Delivering digital products Initial planning Business goals Why online? Benefits Market analysis: different competitors compared with print Data analysis, risk analysis, focus groups Business plan Rights Target platform: online; mobile; accessibility

71 Delivering digital products Tendering Request for Proposals (RPF) Vendors supply response Presentations and demonstrations Vendor selection

72 Delivering digital products Design phase Requirements gathering Deliverables – Information architecture – User-focussed design – Specification – Costs – Schedule

73 Delivering digital products Content creation Incorporating digital content should fundamentally alter the production process New content types: Quality Assurance (QA)

74 Delivering digital products Development/implementation Development contract – Fixed price or time and materials – Deliverables – Site specification – Costs – Schedule – Hosting – Support – Change process

75 Delivering digital products Development/implementation System design and planning – Information architecture, User Interface (UI) design, graphic design, technical design System implementation, deployment, testing – Iterative development, project management, User Acceptance Testing (UAT)

76 Delivering digital products Development /implementation Wireframes and sitemap

77 Delivering digital products

78 Delivering digital products Technical design

79 Delivering digital products Development/implementation Iterative development – Regular releases for early client visibility and feedback – Converge on client requirements over development life-cycle – Quality assessment at the core of development – Continuous measurement of project process and quality – User testing throughout development

80 Delivering digital products Sales and Marketing Maintain and update System support Dedicated support team to cope with availability issues both in and out of normal office hours Site maintenance New features, data revisions, enhancements and bug fixes

81 Some challenges Skill base Data User-centred design User-generated content and social networking Management Routes to market

82 Some questions Does this move my business goal forward? Whats working? Whats not? Can I isolate things that arent working and replace them with new experiments? What purpose is the content serving? How do I measure success? From: Chris Brogan blog

83 Organisational issues Managing all stakeholders across the business has proven challenging for digital decision makers When it comes to management, the Digital Director role is becoming increasingly powerful.... The Digital Director is no longer subservient to the Editor or Marketing Director of the printed product. Deloitte report, 2007

84 New skills and roles Information architect Project manager Digital library sales manager User experience designer/tester Discoverability/SEO/taxonomist/ontologist Social media manager

85 More numbers UK turnover 2008

86 Convergences: games

87 Convergences: games Active participation Modding License model Film Opportunities for use in learning technology

88 Convergences: games Microsoft on unauthorised content on the Xbox: Let's assume we can't stop it. How are we going to manage it?

89 Convergences: museums Museum 2.0 + participatory museums Heritage sector is addressing: Planning and management Fund raising Understanding the audience Metadata - introduction and implementation Copyright and intellectual property Sustainability Financial issues Visual and image based resource creation and delivery Implementing digital resources Digital preservation

90 Convergences Conferences and exhibitions Libraries Humanities computing/digital humanities eLearning Participation (civic and unconferences) Journalism 2.0 Knowledge management TV and broadcasting

91 Digital future Current trends Structured Data The Real-Time Web Personalization Mobile Web & Augmented Reality Internet of Things (objects connected to web) Virtual worlds

92 Digital future In five years? Dominated by Chinese-language content. Jump from app to app to app seamlessly. Distribution distinctions between TV, radio and the web will go away. Content will move towards more video. "Real time information is just as valuable as all the other information, we want it included in our search results....but how do we rank it?" Fundamental shift towards user-generated information; people will listen more to other people than to traditional sources. Learning how to rank that "is the great challenge of the age." Google CEO Eric Schmidt

93 History Ebooks as incunabula

94 Transitions in communications What pointers are there from the past? From writing to print – Gutenberg, Caxton... – History of the Book From oral and memory to written Different literacies

95 Transitions in communications If men learn [writing], it will implant forgetfulness in their souls; they will cease to exercise memory because they rely on that which is written, calling things to remembrance no longer from within themselves, but by means of external marks. What you have discovered is a recipe not for memory, but for reminder. And it is no true wisdom that you offer your disciples, but only its semblance, for by telling them of many things without teaching them you will make them seem to know much, while for the most part they know nothing, and as men filled, not with wisdom, but with the conceit of wisdom, they will be a burden to their fellows. (Plato, Phaedrus, 65)

96 Thoughts Is publishing just about information and 'knowledge management'? How much is it mediated via (mostly) male- designed and created technologies? What can we learn from media and performance scholars? If publishing function still exists in 50 years, what sort of organisations will control it?

97 Blogs and RSS

98 Blogs Tools of Change for Publishing. The Bookseller: http://www.thebookseller.com STM: Black Plastic Glasses. Evan Schnittman, OUP Inc. Institute for the Future of the Book: Joe Wikert's Publishing 2020 Blog ReadWriteWeb: a blog that provides analysis of web products and trends

99 Other Information Kasdorf, William E. (ed) The Columbia Guide to Digital Publishing 2003 Morville, Peter and Louis Rosenfeld Information Architecture for the World Wide Web 2006 Journal of Electronic Publishing ( Information World Review Online Information at Olympia (1-3 December)

100 Thank you

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