14Empathy for painvs.Saarelet al Cerebral Cortex 2006
15Distraction and pain• So which were the neural correlates for these behavioural findings?• When the pain-only condition was compared with the cold-only condition significant activations were observed in several sites, for example the primary somatosensory region for the stimulated hand and the secondary somatosensry areas bilaterally.• These activations were completely abolished when pain was subtracted with cold in the conditions where the subjects simultaneously solved the maze task and the pain was perceived as less unpleasant.Petrovic et al Pain 85 (1-2) 2000
38POP PPL P Regression analysis Petrovic et al Science 295 ( ) 2003
39Conflict monitoring or conflict resolution ? ACC and Cognition -Conflict monitoring or conflict resolution ?EmotionalCounting StroopCountingStroopMurderThreeBush et a. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (6) 2000
40Anterior Cingulate Cortex: Interaction with cognitive attentional systems that regulate conflicting processes.Modulation of pain processing through opioid system.
46- goals and expectations Orbitofrontal cortex- goals and expectations
47- goals and expectations Orbitofrontal cortex- goals and expectations
48- goals and expectations Orbitofrontal cortex- goals and expectations
49Aversive temporal difference prediction error Seymour et al Nature Neuroscience 8 ( ) 2005
50Anterior Cingulate Cortex: Interaction with cognitive attentional systems that regulate conflicting processes.Modulation of pain processing through opioid system.Orbitofrontal Cortex:Emotional and motivational goals and expectations.Computing errors between expected and real outcome.
54Expectation manipulation of treatment expectationPain presentationExpectation manipulationand learningPlacebo manipulationPlacebo creamPlacebo creamRating: 75Rating: 25Rating: 50Voundouris et al J Per Soc Psychol 48 (47-53) 1985Voundouris et al pain 38 ( ) 1989Voundouris et al pain 43 ( ) 1990Montgomery and Kirsch Pain 72 ( ) 1997
55Day 1 – Induction of expectation Bezodiazepines i.v.Lanexate i.v.IAPSIAPSIAPS615129Rating of unpleasantness
56Day 2 - fMRI of the placebo effect Information:Lanexate(No anxiety reduction)Information:Bezodiazepines(Anxiety reducing drug)IAPSIAPSx35136Rating of unpleasantness
57Placebo och unpleasantness - activation of cognitive modulatory networkPetrovic et al Neuron - In Press
58Placebo och unpleasantness - correlation with the expectation effect Petrovic et al Neuron - In Press
59Relation between rACC and vlPFC in Placebo PET-studyfMRI-study