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Contents model effectiveness skills activities aims programme what do you know? MBTI approaches W T.

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Presentation on theme: "Contents model effectiveness skills activities aims programme what do you know? MBTI approaches W T."— Presentation transcript:

1 contents model effectiveness skills activities aims programme what do you know? MBTI approaches W T

2 MBTI WTWT diff LS theories develop process EI SN TF JP

3 skills reframing empathy advanced empathy positive challenge WTWT

4 approaches WTWT RET TA

5 MORE ADVANCED COUNSELLING SKILLS AND STRATEGIES welcome back

6 aims to develop a further understanding of the process of counselling to further develop the skills of counselling and their application

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8 suggested programme day 1recap on what we know further developing skills applications in school some issues in counselling day 2further skills: action planning counselling concepts, styles and approaches peer counselling; teaching counselling skills to kids; relationship to PSE more issues and strategies day 3putting it all together practice dealing with our own problems!

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10 what do you know? in groups of 4/5 discuss what each of you already knows about counselling prepare a 5 minute presentation to teach the rest of us what you know YOU HAVE 30 MINUTES TO PREPARE

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12 HOW THINGS ARE NOW

13 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL

14 THE IDEAL

15 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER

16 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

17 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY

18 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION

19 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST?

20 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST?

21 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION

22 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION

23 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION

24 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM

25 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM

26 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM WHAT COULD I DO?

27 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM WHAT COULD I DO? PLAN

28 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM WHAT COULD I DO? PLAN DO IT

29 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM WHAT COULD I DO? PLAN DO IT

30 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM WHAT COULD I DO? PLAN DO IT

31 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM WHAT COULD I DO? PLAN DO IT PROCESS

32 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM WHAT COULD I DO? PLAN DO IT PROCESS

33 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM WHAT COULD I DO? PLAN DO IT PROCESS

34 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM WHAT COULD I DO? PLAN DO IT PROCESS

35 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM WHAT COULD I DO? PLAN DO IT PROCESS

36 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM PLAN DO IT PROCESS WHAT COULD I DO?

37 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM PLAN DO IT PROCESS WHAT COULD I DO?

38 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM PLAN DO IT PROCESS WHAT COULD I DO?

39 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM PLAN DO IT PROCESS WHAT COULD I DO?

40 HOW THINGS ARE NOW THE IDEAL A LITTLE-BIT-BETTER SEE THINGS DIFFERENTLY EXPLORE THE SITUATION WHAT FIRST? BIT-BETTER VISION AIM PLAN DO IT PROCESS WHAT COULD I DO?

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43 what makes counselling work? quality of relationship skills

44 what makes counselling work? relationshipskills empathy unconditional positive regard genuineness congruence listening clarifying/ questioning positive challenge goal setting action planning processing

45 what makes counselling work? relationship empathy unconditional positive regard genuineness congruence moving towards understanding the other person from their frame of reference and showing it

46 what makes counselling work? relationship empathy unconditional positive regard genuineness congruence respect; warm and caring irrespective of what the person has said or done

47 what makes counselling work? relationship empathy unconditional positive regard genuineness congruence real; sincere; honest with the other person - and with oneself

48 what makes counselling work? relationship empathy unconditional positive regard genuineness congruence all in one piece no discrepancies between what is said, what is done and what is felt

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50 empathy a process trying to get nearer to knowing how someone feels concerns feelings directly expressed showing you are doing this (so that the client knows) You feel ………. when …………

51 advanced empathy trying to understand feelings that are below the surface Feelings that are now spoken or openly expressed playing your hunches….. …..but not playing at psychoanalyzing

52 advanced empathy you feel …….. when …….. and I wonder if you also feel ……..

53 positive challenge what is implied discrepancies between what is said and done said and said done and done said and expressed non-verbally said/done and what most other people would say/do

54 positive challenge self-sharing I felt …….. when …….. I wonder if it s like that for you

55 positive challenge breaking bad news how would you tell someone theyve been made redundant speak to a P2 pupil who has been hitting people in the playground and has made someones noise bleed tell a student they cant do a chosen subject speak to a teacher after they had slapped a student tell a parent their son/daughter has been bullying tell a parent their son/daughter has been caught with ecstasy and the police are on the way

56 positive challenge breaking bad news warning breaking the bad news being supportive

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58 BA PhD MA 0

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61 RAM REFRAMING

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63 download download the course materials from www.aberdeen- education.org.uk/guidance/downloads

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65 We dont all learn (and teach) the same way!

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67 why are learning styles important? People who are actively engaged in the learning process will more likely achieve success. A key to getting and keeping learners involved in the learning process is to understand learning style preferences.

68 models for learning styles Felder–Silverman Learning Model Herrmann Brain-Dominance Model Kolbs Learning-Style Inventory Honey & Mumfords model Barbe-Swassing model Gregorc model of mind styles Myers Briggs Personality Types

69 Felder–Silverman Learning Model sensing or intuitive learners visual or verbal learners inductive or deductive learners active or reflective learners sequential or global learners

70 Herrmann Brain-Dominance Model classifies learners in terms of their relative preferences for thinking in four different modes left-brain cerebral (logical thinkers) left-brain limbic (sequential thinkers) right-brain limbic (emotional thinkers) right-brain cerebral (holistic thinkers).

71 Kolbs Learning-Style Inventory This classifies learners as having a preference for concrete experience or abstract conceptualization active experimentation or reflective observation.

72 Honey & Mumfords Classification Developed from Kolbs model; learners are activists reflectors pragmatists theorists

73 How we take in and learn information Visual learn by seeing and watching Auditory learn by listening to verbal instructions Kinesthetic learn by being physically involved Barbe-Swassing Model

74 Perception –how we take in information Ordering –how we make sense of and use the information Gregorc model of mind styles

75 Perception: how we take in information –Concrete information directly from our 5 senses; hands-on approach –Abstract information from visualization or conception; leap easily from real to symbolic world Gregorc model of mind styles

76 Ordering: how we make sense of and use the information –Sequential linear, step-by-step organization; proceed in orderly way to the end result –Random no particular sequence; learning in layers; starting with the big picture Gregorc model of mind styles

77 Perception Concrete Abstract Ordering Sequential Random Gregorc model of mind styles

78 the development/learning process

79 acquiring or taking in information

80 the development/learning process acquiring or taking in information using information

81 the development/learning process acquiring or taking in information using information getting motivated or energised

82 the development/learning process acquiring or taking in information using information getting motivated or energised your preferred environment

83 getting motivated/energised acquiring or taking in information using information getting motivated or energised your preferred environment

84 getting motivated/energised extraversion

85 getting motivated/energised extraversion E

86 getting motivated/energised extraversion E introversion

87 getting motivated/energised extraversion E introversion I

88 getting motivated/energised E - I your energy source what energises you - inner world or outer world direction of focus - sources of energy how you are energised

89 E I energised by outer world (of people activities, things) energised in inner world (of ideas, emotions, impressions focus on people, thingsfocus on thoughts, concepts activereflective breadth of interestdepth of interest live it, then understand itunderstand it, before live it interactionconcentration

90 E I outgoinginwardly directed do-think-dothink-do-think prefer talking to writingprefer activity to take place quietly in head need to experience world to understand it, and so tend to like action don't need to experience things to understand them because the concepts and ideas can be worked out in the head talk it outthink it through

91 E I extend into your environment by reaching out to others defend yourself against your environment by stepping back/avoiding others act first, think laterthink first, act later like variety and actionlike concentration and reflection prefer to talk face-to-faceprefer to use memos, e-mail, and other written forms of communication you are frequently not available because youre out and about even though youre present, others see you as difficult to read/remote or hard to know

92 the development/learning process acquiring or taking in information using information getting motivated or energised your preferred environment

93 acquiring/taking in information sensing

94 acquiring/taking in information sensingS

95 acquiring/taking in information sensingS intuitive

96 acquiring/taking in information sensingS intuitiveN

97 acquiring/taking in information S - N way of taking in information/how you prefer to take in information perceiving preference what you pay attention to

98 S N prefer taking in information through the five senses prefer taking in information through the sixth sense and noticing what might be work with known factslook for possibilities and relationships factsmeanings dataassociations

99 S N detailspossibilities reality-basedhunches, speculations actualitytheoretical here and nowfuture utilityfantasy

100 S N step-by-stepleap around avoid fabrications and generalities regarding things overlook details, lose focus when things are too spelled out value accuracy and precisionvalue insights and analogies relish the presentanticipate the future let the facts pile up to find the trends let imagination and ideas be their guide want to know the practical applications or results want to know additional uses or possible innovations

101 the development/learning process acquiring or taking in information using information getting motivated or energised your preferred environment

102 using information acquiring or taking in information using information getting motivated or energised your preferred environment

103 using information thinking

104 using information thinkingT

105 using information thinkingT feeling

106 using information thinkingT feelingF

107 T F base decisions on objective/impersonal analysis and logic base decisions on personal values analysissympathy objectivesubjective logichumane impersonalpersonal

108 T F critiqueappreciate reasonvalues criteriacircumstances firm but faircompassionate weigh the pros and cons sort through your values

109 T F want to be logicalwant to have a harmonious outcome seek to find the truth, influenced by objective reasoning seek to find the most important, influenced by personal information concern yourself with the underlying principles behind a decision concern yourself with the impact the decision may have on people tend toward scepticism and controversy tend towards acceptance and tolerance care that flaws are discovered, sharing them with others in an effort to care for them prefer not to critique others but rather to find an appreciative comment

110 the environment you prefer acquiring or taking in information using information getting motivated or energised your preferred environment

111 the environment you prefer judging

112 the environment you prefer judgingJ

113 the environment you prefer judgingJ perceiving

114 the environment you prefer judgingJ perceivingP

115 J P prefer a planned, decided, ordered and organised way of life prefer a flexible, spontaneous way of life organisedpending settledflexible plannedspontaneous decisivetentative

116 J P control ones lifelet life happen set goalsundaunted by surprise systematicopen to change plan your work and work your plan solve problems as they arise schedule out your time, setting dates and arrangements leave scheduling options open as long as possible

117 J P make decisions quickly, putting a stop to seeking new information enjoy considering new information, putting off final decisions find surprises and interruptions an annoyance find surprises or interruptions a welcome distraction want to have things settled in advance want to face a few challenges with spontaneity focus on tasks and timetables focus on processes and options

118 which best applies to you? doing what should be done a high sense of duty an inspiration to others everything has room for improvement ready to try anything once sees much but shares little performing noble service to aid society a love of problem- solving the ultimate realist you only go around once in life giving life an extra squeeze one exciting challenge after another one of lifes administrator host/hostess of the world smooth- talking persuader one of lifes natural leaders

119 The sixteen personality types ISTJISFJINFJINTJ ISTPISFPINFPINTP ESTPESFPENFPENTP ESTJESFJENFJENTJ

120 The sixteen personality types ISTJ doing what should be done ISFJ a high sense of duty INFJ an inspiration to others INTJ everything has room for improvement ISTP ready to try anything once ISFP sees much but shares little INFP performing noble service to aid society INTP a love of problem-solving ESTP the ultimate realist ESFP you only go around once in life ENFP giving life an extra squeeze ENTP one exciting challenge after another ESTJ one of lifes administrator ESFJ host/hostess of the world ENFJ smooth-talking persuader ENTJ one of lifes natural leaders

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122 the development/learning process acquiring or taking in information using information getting motivated or energised your preferred environment

123 getting motivated/energised E - I your energy source what energises you - inner world or outer world direction of focus - sources of energy how you are energised

124 E s prefer being in a group group work; group projects; group brainstorming talking (although they get rather fed up with too much talk from others eg teacher!) talking before doing individual work or individual thinking

125 E s prefer activities which give a chance to reconsider thoughts or possible answers or solutions relatively short, fast-moving activities/environment trial and error problem-solving (they often succeed when the principles follow the experience, e.g. when using computers, microscopes or doing maths activities)

126 E s prefer learning by watching someone else do something first (modelling) (eg in science allow extraverts to try or watch an experiment before you explain it) talking to lots of other people when wrestling with a problem action and variety knowing what other people expect of them

127 E s prefer relatively easily distracted (eg do not often concentrate best when sitting next to a window)

128 I s prefer individual activities one-to-one or small group interaction, and may find larger groups difficult lectures more than extraverts not being put on the spot by too many questions which require spontaneous answers time for preparation would be helpful here (introverts are not usually the first to raise their hands in class)

129 I s prefer pauses for thinking or reflection after being given a question, task or problem someone else modelling a course of action before they attempt it rehearsing before they do something eg speak in front of large group or give oral presentations concentrating on a few tasks at a time

130 I s prefer taking their time to understand something before they try it want to understand the concept before trying to solve a problem to set their own standards

131 I s can often cope with (shut out) distractions do not always express enthusiasms immediately (eg for a particular course of action) may need reassurance that it is OK for them not to be extravert

132 the development/learning process acquiring or taking in information using information getting motivated or energised your preferred environment

133 acquiring/taking in information S - N way of taking in information/how you prefer to take in information perceiving preference what you pay attention to

134 S s prefer to use eyes/ears/touch to find out what's happening information and facts as well as (vague) ideas and theories (may find abstract concepts difficult or stressful) lectures or programmed learning, but only if they attract attention (straight lectures or lots of teacher talk aren't usually enough) audio-visual presentations (rather than just OHP presentations)

135 S s prefer solving problems through standard methods (so may have difficulty with new problems if this can't be done) skills practice work experience; community service etc hands-on activities; practical work case studies tasks which involve the use of senses (eg touch) and which are definite and measurable

136 S s prefer using skills they've already learned more than learning new skills practical/concrete examples having precise step-by-step directions/ideas about what they are going to do definite measurable things facts and distrust vague ideas a reference (eg a chapter in a book which they can use as a study guide

137 S s may be patient with details but impatient when details get complicated may find challenge difficult sometimes find it difficult when INTUITIVE (N) teachers present material from several different perspectives (eg in social subjects)

138 N s prefer reading and listening activities paying attention to meanings of facts and how they fit together open-ended situations using imagination to come up with possibilities and new ways of doing things solving new problems, particularly those which don't have one particular solution

139 N s prefer not doing things over and over again - get bored with practice activities and lose interest learning new skills rather than practising those already learned challenge and open-ended, creative activities self-paced learning group discussions which allow imagination

140 N s prefer role play (particularly if the person also prefers extraversion) having new topics introduced in such a way that it encourages them to look upon them as challenges (but if you give them too many details at first they may feel overwhelmed)

141 N s may be impatient with details but don't mind complicated situations dislike routine sometimes find it difficult to get down to concrete realities

142 the development/learning process acquiring or taking in information using information getting motivated or energised your preferred environment

143 T F base decisions on objective/impersonal analysis and logic base decisions on personal values analysissympathy objectivesubjective logichumane impersonalpersonal

144 T s prefer deciding things logically lectures if logically structured being treated with justice and fair play tasks/problems with right answers praise for getting things right; they tend to value individual achievement

145 T s prefer rank-ordering (eg of courses of action) to know where they stand in relation to others and can be devastated by failure feedback – and quickly - on what they've done work to be marked, and feedback given – quickly researching information and debate to be task oriented

146 T s prefer programmed learning debates problem-solving activities involving collecting, organizing and evaluating data activities which involve research (e.g. library research) and allow them to share results with others

147 T s sometimes hurt other people's feelings without realising it; they may pay more attention to ideas than to other people's feelings don't necessarily need harmony, and often don't mind conflict so much as other people may enjoy talking with teachers rather than peers

148 F s prefer to decide according to personal feelings or values pleasing people, even in unimportant things activities involving positive feedback praise for the effort they've put in

149 F s prefer taking account of other people's feelings more than ideas, and they sometimes ignore the logic harmony and get upset by conflict appreciate being known personally by the teacher knowing they're liked helping others, so may make good peer teachers (but remember prefer does not always equal good at)

150 F s prefer group discussion and group decision- making and role play particularly if person also has a preference for extraversion

151 F s may find it difficult to challenge others, even in a small way, because they worry about dealing with the possible (conflict) response have difficulty in accepting criticism, sarcasm, ridicule

152 the development/learning process acquiring or taking in information using information getting motivated or energised your preferred environment

153 J P prefer a planned, decided, ordered and organised way of life prefer a flexible, spontaneous way of life organisedpending settledflexible plannedspontaneous decisivetentative

154 J s prefer to have a plan, & have things settled in advance highly structured activities with clear deadlines to have clear purposes and instructions things to turn out the way they ought to be to finish one project before they start another, so may like to try out courses of action one at a time

155 J s prefer to decide things fairly quickly to be right to live by schedules which are not easily changed

156 J s prefer to be told in advance of any changes in procedures or schedules (e.g. if there is to be a substitute teacher or a change in schedule such as an assembly) and make sure they know for how long to have a course outline so that they know the topics which will be covered during a term/course/year

157 J s may find it difficult to cope with too many unfinished projects - implications for Standard Grade assignments here?

158 P s prefer to be flexible & not have plans which are too fixed, so find target setting and action planning rather a problem (Not target setting again; weve done that, they might say!) flexible tasks which can be approached in different ways unplanned and unexpected happenings

159 P s prefer to start lots of projects, but have trouble finishing them all (so may like to try out lots of courses of action at once at not complete them properly) to decide things fairly slowly to miss nothing to live by making changes to deal with problems as they arise discussions which do not lead to preconceived conclusions

160 P s may find games helpful in learning concepts often find sitting at a desk for long periods of time boring, and can distract others by their activity during quiet times if they aren't allowed the chance to move around at some time (remember that PERCEIVING pupils often act spontaneously!)

161 P s often enjoy long discussions which do not lead to preconceived conclusions may need help in completing assignments on time can sometimes be helped to develop plans for their work by working backwards from deadlines

162 P s BE CAREFUL… …not to interpret their off-task behaviour as confrontation with the teacher they often just like having fun and enjoying life, and have a good sense of humour which can be harnessed in the classroom

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164 contact details Terry Ashton, Adviser (Guidance and Careers) e-mail TAshton@education.aberdeen.net.uk Website on Guidance/pastoral care/PSE www.aberdeen-education.org.uk/guidance

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166 index styles: using information styles: your environment learning T Learning preferences F learning preferences contact details styles: being energized styles: acquiring information S learning preferences N learning preferences the learning process description of styles E learning preferences I learning preferences J learning preferences P learning preferences

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168 Rational Emotive Counselling (RET) 1.human beings are uniquely rational (as well as irrational!) - when they think rationally they are competent, happy and effective 2.emotional/psychological disturbance is the result of irrational thinking (thought and emotion are not separate) 3.people are biologically predisposed to irrational thinking (which leads to emotional disturbance) assumptions

169 Rational Emotive Counselling (RET) 4.human beings are verbal animals and thinking usually occurs through the use of symbols or language- so when people are disturbed they perpetuate their disturbance by irrational ideas and thoughts (we are our thoughts) assumptions

170 Rational Emotive Counselling (RET) 5.continuing emotional disturbance is the result of self- verbalisations and not the result of events. (PEOPLE ARE DISTURBED NOT BY THINGS BUT BY THE VIEW THEY TAKE OF THEM) assumptions

171 Rational Emotive Counselling (RET) 6.negative and irrational thoughts need to be attacked by a recognition of the perceptions and thinking so that the thinking becomes logical and rational. SO THE GOAL OF THE COUNSELLOR IS TO DEMONSTRATE TO CLIENTS THAT THE SELF-VERBALISATIONS ARE ILLOGICAL AND IRRATIONAL assumptions

172 Rational Emotive Counselling (RET) ANTECEDENT BELIEFS CONSEQUENCES THE A-B-C THEORY

173 Rational Emotive Counselling (RET) 11 beliefs that are universally inculcated by western society irrational beliefs

174 Rational Emotive Counselling (RET) 1.I must be loved or approved of by virtually everyone 2.I must be perfectly competent, adequate and achieving to be considered worthwhile 3.If things are not as I want them to be, it is a terrible catastrophe irrational beliefs

175 Rational Emotive Counselling (RET) 4.there is always a right or perfect solution to every problem, and it must be found or the results will be catastrophic 5.unhappiness is caused by outside circumstances and a person has no control over it 6.dangerous and fearsome things are cause for great concern and their possibility must be continually dwelt upon irrational beliefs

176 Rational Emotive Counselling (RET) 7.it is easier to avoid certain difficulties and self-responsibilities than to face up to them 8.a person should be dependent on others and should have someone stronger on whom to rely 9.past experiences and events are the determinants of present behaviour; the influence of the past cannot be eradicated irrational beliefs

177 Rational Emotive Counselling (RET) 10.a person should be quite upset over other peoples problems and disturbances 11.Some people are bad, wicked or villainous and therefore should be blamed and punished irrational beliefs

178 Transactional Analysis (TA) ego states

179 Transactional Analysis (TA) P A C

180 PAACPAACA eg states

181 Transactional Analysis (TA) PACPAC set of feelings, thoughts attitudes and behaviours which resemble those of parental figures

182 Transactional Analysis (TA) PACPAC objective, rational, makes judgements

183 Transactional Analysis (TA) PACPAC set of feelings, thoughts attitudes and behaviours that are relics of an individuals childhood eg spontaneity

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