Presentation on theme: "Current Uses of Computers in UK Business and Industry"— Presentation transcript:
1 Current Uses of Computers in UK Business and Industry Kevin J NeedhamMet Office20th November 2001
2 The Talk Who am I What is the Met Office? The Weather Machine! Some IT ChallengesThe FutureSummaryQuestions
3 I.e. a Bit of..... History - what done/learned Now - what doing Future - where going
4 I was asked toShow how computers enhance the performance of business users.You will see that "The Met Office needs IT like a fish needs water.”CAN YOU READ THIS OK???
5 Who am I? - why should I be here talking to you? Kevin J NeedhamProject and Programme Management and IT Training Programme Manager at the Met Office College in ReadingBeen with Met. Office 21 Years from Research, Training, Strategy, Y2K etc
6 My Experience Most recent past - Project 2000 - Deputy Project Manager Stage 1-3Testing & Technical Information ManagerY2K Business Continuity Manager for Government Departments (PMS, DHSS, DETR, Home Office etc)Future - IT?/Met?/????
7 What can we do today? Barely scratch the surface It will be “fast and furious”Give you a flavourLeave you wanting to know more?Tell you where to find it!!
8 Rules if engagement WARNING Laugh at the “Jokes” or they get worse!!!! We have a lot to get through, so Please leave questions to the endIn the unlikely event of you going to sleep - PLEASE DON’T SNORE zzzzzzWARNING Laugh at the “Jokes” or they get worse!!!!
9 The Met Office - what do we do? TV forecasts?? BBC & ITVNewspapers??CEEFAXThe Weather programmeBUT WHAT ELSE?The above is less than 1% of our business
10 A few vital Statistics As of March 2001..... 147 years old Trading Fund
11 History of Met OfficeEstablished Meteorological Dept. Of the Board of Trade.Became Meteorological OfficeSeparate Met. For each armed force.Part of Air MinistryBecame MOD
12 History of Met Office 1990 (April 2) Next Steps Executive Agency 1993 First Charter1996(April 1) Trading FundMet Office run as a business.
13 A Business? Continued and proven improvements in Quality of service Greater flexibilitySustained improvement for less moneyReduction in staff - increased use automation
14 What’s in a Brand?When you see this logo - what do you associate with us?November 2000 “The Met.Office became
15 Why? The Odyssey Project (1998) examined scenarios of our future. Key outcome - to widen our horizons - moving the ‘Met Office’ to becoming the nation’s key provider in the wider field of natural environmental services such as hydrology and oceanography, not just ‘weather’.
16 Why?To become a key player in development of European meteorological collaboration.Fully embrace internet, its emerging technologies and the huge potential of e-commerce.Did our old Brand say all this???Does our new one???
17 Brand & IT New templates for fax, letter, web, etc Machine ready brand, logo etcRevamped Web siteAll products re-badgedAll customer systems rebadgedAll on a single day to maintain the impact…..
18 Competitors - do we have them? YES!!! - lots of themIn Strategic “arms length” business unit - to compete on a level playing field“Buy” services from the Met. OfficeSame services provided to competitors - same charges
19 DPDS Data & Products Distribution Service Set up 4 years ago to provide our competitors with “push” or “pull” data and products via internetEuropean and world wideAhead of its timeContinually improved
20 A few vital Statistics As of March 2001..... 147 years old Trading FundStaffDirectors 10 (plus CE)7 Executive, 3(4) non executive
21 Our Management Board But what about IT? Peter Ewins - CE Paul Mason - Chief ScientistColin Flood - Operations DirectorRoger Hunt PS Business DirectorJim Caughey - Technical DirectorPhilip Mabe - Finance DirectorMartin Sands - Company SecretaryStephen Lawrenson - Commercial MDMO Board above + 3/4 Non ExecBut what about IT?
22 “Divisional Structure” - “Matrix work” moving towards a Process Based structure
23 Staff MOD Civil servants & contractors Split 50/50 between R&D/support/sales and forecastingScientists & Admin - single grade structureCompetency based assessment of posts, skills and achievement
27 Other Sites Met O College - Reading Met Research Unit - Cardington Met Research Flight - FarnboroughJCMM - Reading UniversityRSI - Farnboroughregional Weather Centres in main cities - inc London, Cardiff, Manchester…..
28 also Port Met Offices ADAS MAFF Lighthouses RAF - UK Navy, ARMY RANGES, AirportsLocal Councils, Auxilliaries etcAnd that’s just the UK!
29 Overseas All RAF bases overseas All military operations overseas Mobile unitOther basesCyprus, FalklandsDependent on ALL other met services in ALL other countries in peace and war.
39 The Met. Office Multi-functional organisation MOD owned Responsible to GovernmentHas diverse responsibilitiesIs a world-wide and world-class organisation24 hour, 365/6 days operation
40 Met OfficeOur Vision: Through unrivalled know-how, to enable individuals, society and enterprises everywhere to make the most of the weather and the natural environment.
41 Met Office This all requires VERY effective use of IT Our Goals: To lead the world in advice on weather and the natural environment.To make the Met. Office a source of pride to our staff, our owner, and the public.This all requires VERYeffective use of IT
42 The Met. Office is: Accountable Chartered Investor in People TARGETS set and measured by NAOeg 84% accuracy general forecastCharteredInvestor in People
69 New Satellites Magnitudes more data More Instruments More calibration Greater resolutionStorage and transmission Challenges!(We also build and test the satellite instruments)
70 Global Networks Global Observations are Key to modern Met. WMO maintains framework for international exchangeBracknell one of several Hubs on GTS.- Tropics - 100s Thousands bulletins and products to customers and other Met Centres from few K to many Gbytes.
74 Tropics in the future? PC/workstation based In-built redundancy - increased toleranceStandard technology - less specialistsCost much less to buy/maintain/upgradeMeets greater pull demands for products
75 The Weather machine Verification R&D Transmission Support & InfrastructureObservationsPrepare and give Product to CustomerInput to ModelInterpretForecast
76 Brief History Computing Richardson 1922Desktop Computer 1950sEDSAC - Cambridge UNIV for LYONS (LEO) - paper tape-mercury storage linesFerranti Mark I - Manchester - Storage Cathode Ray - simple modelsFerranti Mercury (METEOR) - Valve Storage -Dunstable to Bracknell Printers, paper tape 3 level model
79 Brief History (2)IBM/ level model - disks and tape, programs from disk, 24hr forecasts 70 mins, programmer training, punched cards input.
80 Brief History (2)IBM/ level model - disks and tape, programs from disk, 24hr forecasts 70 mins, programmer training, punched cards input.IBM 370/158 - gave backup, TSO, links to outside world in >1000 jobs per day.Cray at ECMWFCyber 205 Bracknell - 400Mflops, Vector Pgming, fed by IBM
82 History Computing (3) 1980s - Various upgrades to front end mainframe more disks, tapes, reduced use cards, film and plotted output.ETA MFLops - Flopped.....Late 80s/90s - succession CraysEarly 90s HDS MainframeToday
83 Computers and the Met“The Met Office does not just use, it abuses computers….”“If you want someone to get 120% out of a computer - it’s the Met Office”“The Met Office makes computers do things it wasn’t designed to - and do it well…..”“They get every ounce out of them..”
84 IBM 9672-R45 Installed October 1998 4 CPUs (scalar) 3 Gb Memory Performance 61 MIPS/CPU2.3 KilowattsWeight 0.1 TonsO/S 390
85 IBM 9672-R45“Workhorse”Front end Processor & data handler - 200K Jobs per monthControls Grau Tape Robot and Front end disks.Feeds and clears up after Supercomputer!!Acts as ftp and intranet siteHolds corporate software, backups and databases
88 Second IBMWith amount of data handling, system “slow” at certain times - eg forecast production!Second IBM installed to provide backup and alleviate hot periodSupport for CRAY twins! (more later)
89 Second IBM IBM 9672 R25 Smaller version of original Avoided Licensing issues (by MIP)3 months buy - installationRuns all forecast output - greater consistency for ForecastsReleases R45 for use by rest of Office
90 Future of the mainframe? Distributed UNIX functional systems - September 2001Prevent maintenance of MVS system architectures & legacy languages eg JCLGreater use of Proprietary Database (Met created its own in 70s, as until recently nothing suitable - now ORACLE)Will it have its place??How do we convert?
91 T3E Massively Parallel Processor Oct 96 - april 97 (extended)support (clock speed 450Mhz)each PE - 128mb (8 have 256)1152Gb900Mflops per PELiquidDate of InstallationNumber Processors elements (PEs)Local Mem sizeDisk StoragePeak performanceCooling
92 T3E Massively Parallel Processor Power consumption KWhTotal weight tonsOperating system - UNICOS/mkBackup generators for operational areas
93 Second CRAYBecause of volume of work require a second CRAY T3E recently installed and accepted 1999MhzMost 256MBTotal - 1,500 Billion calculations per second….Also “Baby” test T3E
94 Second CRAY Used for Numerical weather prediction & Climate research To keep ahead of our competitorsEnhanced modelsOverall upgrade by 80% even though 25% fewer processors they run faster
95 T3E Massively Parallel Processor Replaced Cray 90 once all code converted and tested in parallel at least 5 times faster.Much of code had to be rewritten to make most use of parallel processors - data exchange....Connected via EthernetChange from few fast expensive CPUs to many small cheap RISK based.Where to storeall this data?
96 Future of Super Computing Has to be parallelGreater speed of processorsLess costMore memoryLINUX based PC chips?Fewer companiesDistributed by function?
97 GRAU tape Robot Installed July 1993 5 Towers = bar-coded cartridgesTwo Robots200 mounts /hourHigh availability17.5million Chars/Sec to IBM250Million to/from Cray (superlink)Job of two staff -No tea breaks
98 A Few Statistics 1981 - 10K 1600bpi tapes 1985 - 20K 6250bpi tapes K 18 & 36 Track Cartridges - Approx 21.1 TbytesNow growing at 100+ bytes yearTbytes??Tbytes??Current MF Disk Capacity GB RAID - HSM
99 Future - Mass StorageReplacing ageing Grau with File Tek MASS storage systemForecast well over a Peta Byte (thousand Tera Bytes by 2005Use for all storage and backups?Automated high capacity tape cartridge silos - dedicated computer systemWhere to now???
100 Why Need Such Storage Hi Speed Computers = Hi Res Models = more data Ongoing Archive of infoOperational BackupClimate Data - Keep Forever??Research - Still comparing with 20 years ago.
112 The Weather machine Verification R&D Transmission Support & InfrastructureObservationsPrepare and give Product to CustomerInput to ModelInterpretForecast
113 Outstations Production Unified System - 1990s Hardware:Vax Server, PCs,MacsSoftware:Windows,MS Office, FreelanceNetwork: x400, , fax async file transfer, telexCustomer InterfaceWas at 13 SitesMix Met and WPStandardised Outstations
114 NIMBUS Replacement for ODS Standard across all sites Forecasters can use any site to do their workLocal and central productsStandardsOff shelf and tailored softwareBased on NT systemsProject managed - why?
115 Few Issues ? Same all sites Cultural (not let go - always done this way)Ergonomics each site - deskingNew cablingContinue services during installParallel running
116 Few Issues ? Forecaster training across 4 shifts Training Just in time and at sitePortable system!Managing rollout with contractorsManaging change to system releases and local productsOn-going training for new releases
117 The Weather machine Verification R&D Transmission Support & InfrastructureObservationsPrepare and give Product to CustomerInput to ModelInterpretForecast
118 Customers PMS - Safety of life & information National Severe Weather WarningsStorm TidesGale WarningsShipping & inshorePollutionInformation (including WWW & Library)Customers
119 Some want their product and delivery kept very simple Paper & Form basedFax transmissionMobile communications roomsRely heavily on experience of staffReactive to situations and events
124 Customer CAA - World area Forecast Centre for civil aviation Automatic products and personal briefings5% Tolerance on fuelling based on forecastCustomer
125 Services to Civil Aviation NATS contractWorld Area Forecast SystemGeneral aviationAirlinesServices to airfields
126 Customer Defence - All armed forces presence at all RAF & Ranges UKall sites abroadMobile Met. UnitNAVYCustomerSpecial services when they need them - logistics to battlefield - people on the ground to advise
134 CUSTOMERS Non Core R&D Admin & Finance All audited against very strict performance & Business targets eg advice pollutants within 30 mins, annual improvements in forecast accuracy
135 Keeping it all going Own engineers for instruments Single source maintainers of Computers24X365 Help DeskOperations team 24X360
136 Keeping it all goingTivoli management system across - monitoring events across all platformsAllow OPS staff to concentrate on resolution management not problem tracking
137 Help for the Customer 24 x 365 Customer Call centre Single number local and 0800 callsHelp across range of servicesKnowledge based responsesDuring Floods - peak 2K calls per hour
138 Recap - The Met Office Deliver World Class forecasts Best possible accuracyLowest unit costdelivered appropriate to Customer needsLots of delivery methodsstock products ?? others“significant” customers
139 NT ProjectDelivered on time to budget by experienced Project managers with appropriate resources and staff“Standardised NT desktop”Standard “functional” softwareeg not 30 word processorsManaged softwareSupportable centrallyCost effectiveCompliant
140 IS Strategy Covers all uses of IT in Met Office Core observing, NWP, Forecasting research commercialInterfaces to Customers Product format, transmission, securityContinual ProcessDirections not technical Solutions
141 Standards Comms: TCP/IP, X400, LAN Environments M.Frame, Workstation, PCOperating Sys. MVS,UNIX,NTData Storage. CentralGraphics GKS, CGMProgramming Fortran, CAnalysis/Design SSADM, CASE
142 Software? Who uses standards? Standards & User group? Standards documentsDocumentation?Earliest Code 1972?Lots Versions of languagesSystem dependent?Software managementSoftware backups - dangers?Who uses standards?
143 Areas of uncertaintyFORTRAN and OO - latent impact of language changesJAVA, PERL and C++Training for the new millenniumFORTRAN training!!!UNIX vs MVS
144 Other Issues Centralised Purchasing Single Source Maintenance Use of Partners - Core business issuesCentral File StorageVirus ControlSystem & Data IntegritySystem and Service MonitoringDatabasesStandards
146 Integration & Testing ISO900 and TickIT Processes mapped to services Critical services need to be protectedOffshore and support for other met services systems as greater international use of Met Office systemsIncreased maintenance issues
147 Supporting “our” systems Now need 24 X 365 for software and HardwareCultural issuesHelp desk support groupsCriticality of services defined and tested contingency and recovery plans in place
148 So who does use these computer things? Perhaps better who not?Messengers?, Bookings, Memos, corporate info….Security - surely notJanus, Memos, , etcCleanersTimesheets - corporate informationCompared to even 5 years ago….
149 RelocationBetween 2001 and 2003 the Met Office will relocate all its Bracknell functions to Exeter
150 Some IT Challenges of Relocation New Building, working practices and DesktopNew Operating systemsKeeping continuity of servicesParallel runningEnd to end testing - right into customer sitesMoving goalposts of technologySupport infrastructure in Exeter area
151 Some IT Challenges of Relocation Chance to re-write code or not? Is there time?Loss of experts in short term?Change of operating system to UNIX?Get rid of legacy - will there be time?Training between sitesIncreased home and mobile workingPaperless Office??
152 Met on the net Web Site - Oct 95 Business Site - Jan 96 Intranet System MonitoringK hits per dayPay as go services
155 Internet based services Met where you need it, when you need itBased on WAP, internet and mobile computingWhat customers are demandingLow cost, high volumeProblems of “technology”Use of packages “Dreamweaver” to provide standards, and ease of training
158 Future Greater diversity requirements Hydrology, Oceanography, Environmental etcGreater Customer drive for more effective services at lower cost - reduced errors etcEven greater reliance on appropriate IT for cost effective solution
159 Future More effectively managed IT Centralise Storage? Centralise Services etcGreater use of effective SLAsCentralise production (NMC) - get more info to point use/sale faster.Always need bigger and better facilitiesContinue to get most out of kitetc
160 Use of Computers OK to be reliant on computers Must not be led by computersMust not be slave to computersAn effective organisation relies on appropriately skilled, allocated, resourced and motivated STAFF - computers are after all just a TOOL!!!
161 What is most important?“The Met. Office’s most valued asset is its staff - in a crisis they are always there…”“You can buy a new computer - not so easy to buy expertise”
163 The Job Science & Technology Improving performance of modelsClimatic and environmental investigationsSupport and development of comms, remote sensing & computingSpecialist - HR, Finance, Marketing & Sales, Property managementIT Specialists - eg Workstation support, Internet development
164 IT SpecialistAre youA graduate or have experience in computing or a physical scienceFluent in FORTRAN and UNIX / configuration managementcan demonstrate aptitude to IT in scientific environmentexcited by computer systems, networks or applicationskeen to apply your skills to real problems
165 IT Specialist Do you want to apply your knowledge to weather forecasting and environmental scienceswork across the range of systems from the web to supercomputersmake a positive contribution to development and IT service provisionhelp us to take advantage of exciting developments in local and wide area networksdevelop your existing computer skills
166 The Job - graduate Starting Salary - £12,740 - £32,619 Terms - Permanent and Fixed.Qualifications:good degree (or other professional qualification & experience)in:mathsphysical disciplinecomputer sciencemeteorology
167 Application forms & info Capita RAS, Innovation Court, New Street, Basingstoke, Hampshire, RG21 7JBTel (24 hours)Register interest - see web site…Placements….
168 The Met Office Is Equal Opportunities Employer seeks to achieve excellence through it's most valued asset - the people it employs.Keen to hear from suitable applicantsVacancies regularly.SEE WEB SITE FOR DETAILS
169 How to contact me Kevin J Needham Met Office Met Office College Shinfield, Reading, Berks, RG2 9AUphone:fax: