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1 Relational Algebra, Part III, and Other Operators Hugh Darwen hugh@dcs.warwick.ac.uk www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~hugh CS252.HACD: Fundamentals of Relational Databases Section 6: Relational Algebra, Part III, and Other Operators

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2 The Running Example … StudentIdName S1Anne S2Boris S3Cindy S4Devinder S5Boris StudentIdCourseId S1C1 S1C2 S2C1 S3C3 S4C1 IS_CALLEDIS_ENROLLED_ON StudentId is called NameStudentId is enrolled on CourseId

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3 … and these CourseIdTitle C1Database C2HCI C3Op Systems C4Programming StudentIdCourseIdMark S1C185 S1C249 S2C149 S3C366 S4C193 COURSEEXAM_MARK CourseId is entitled TitleStudentId scored Mark in the exam for course CourseId

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4 Some Useful Shorthands semijoin composition GROUP/UNGROUP UPDATE (not an update operator!) Relational operators: Other operators: relation comparisons tuple extraction (from a relation) attribute value extraction (from a tuple)

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5 Semijoin StudentId is called Name AND is enrolled on some course. IS_CALLED MATCHING IS_ENROLLED_ON StudentIdName S1Anne S2Boris S3Cindy S4Devinder

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6 Definition of MATCHING So, let s = r1 MATCHING r2. Then: The heading of s is the heading of r1. The body of s consists of each tuple of r1 that matches at least one tuple of r2 on their common attributes. It follows that in the case where there are no common attributes, s is empty if r2 is empty, and is otherwise equal to r1. r1 MATCHING r2 r1 JOIN ( r2 { common-attrs }) where common-attrs is the attributes in common to r1 and r2.

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7 Composition StudentId is enrolled on a course entitled Title. IS_ENROLLED_ON COMPOSE COURSE StudentIdTitle S1Database S1HCI S2Database S3Op Systems S4Database

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8 Definition of COMPOSE r1 COMPOSE r2 ( r1 JOIN r2 ) { ALL BUT common-attrs } where common-attrs is the attributes in common to r1 and r2. Exercise (see Notes): Is COMPOSE commutative? I.e., is r1 COMPOSE r2 equivalent to r2 COMPOSE r1? Is COMPOSE associative? I.e., are (r1 COMPOSE r2) COMPOSE r3 and r1 COMPOSE (r2 COMPOSE r3 ) equivalent?

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9 Read-only Counterparts of Update Operators E.g. UPDATE ( IS_CALLED WHERE StudentId = S1 ) ( Name := Ann ) And the target is a relation, not a relvar Note lack of semicolon – this is an expression, not an imperative. INSERT rv1 r2? Counterpart is r1 UNION r2. DELETE rv WHERE c? Counterpart is r WHERE NOT(c).

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10 GROUP/UNGROUP StudentIdName S1Anne S2Boris S3Cindy S4Devinder S5Boris NameStudentIds Anne Boris Cindy Devinder StudentId S1 StudentId S2 S5 StudentId S3 StudentId S4 GROUP UNGROUP AB

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11 From A to B and Back Again B = A GROUP ( { StudentId } AS StudentIds ) A = B UNGROUP ( StudentIds )

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12 Other Operators Operators on relations that do not yield relations: aggregate operators (already seen) relation comparison tuple extraction Operators on relations that do not yield relations: aggregate operators (already seen) relation comparison tuple extraction Operators on tuples that do not yield tuples: relation selection (already seen) attribute value extraction Operators that yield tuples: tuple selection (already seen) tuple counterparts of relational operators

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13 Relation Comparison Case Study NameN_StudentIds Anne Boris Cindy Devinder StudentId S1 StudentId S2 S5 StudentId S3 StudentId S4 CourseIdC_StudentIds C1 C2 C3 StudentId S1 StudentId S1 S2 S4 StudentId S3 BC

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14 Relation Comparison (1) (( B JOIN C ) WHERE N_StudentIds C_StudentIds) { Name, CourseId } Every student enrolled on CourseId is called Name (and at least one student is enrolled on CourseId). CourseIdName C2Anne C3Cindy

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15 Relation Comparison (2) (( B JOIN C ) WHERE N_StudentIds C_StudentIds) { Name, CourseId } Every student called Name is enrolled on CourseId (and at least one student is called Name). NameCourseId AnneC1 AnneC2 CindyC3 DevinderC1

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16 Tuple Extraction Given a relation r of cardinality 1 (no more, no less): TUPLE FROM r yields the single tuple contained in the body of r. E.g.: TUPLE FROM ( IS_CALLED WHERE StudentId = S1) gives TUPLE { StudentId S1, Name Anne }

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17 Attribute Value Extraction Given a tuple t with an attribute a: a FROM t yields the value of the a attribute in t. E.g.: Name FROM TUPLE FROM ( IS_CALLED WHERE StudentId = S1) gives Anne

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18 A Relational View of Arithmetic Recall the imagined relation PLUS: abc 123 235 213 Now, to compute, e.g., 2+3 …

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19 Adding 2 and 3 abc 123 235 213 c FROM TUPLE FROM ( PLUS COMPOSE { RELATION { TUPLE { a 2, b 3 } } ) PLUS (okay, 2+3 is perhaps a little easier!)

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20 Tuple Counterparts of Relational Operators Let t1, t2, … be tuples. Then we have: tuple projection: t1 { [ALL BUT] attribute-name-list } tuple join: t1 JOIN t2, and JOIN{t1,t2,…} tuple extension: EXTEND t1 ADD ( exp AS attribute-name ) tuple rename: t1 RENAME ( a AS b, … ) tuple update: UPDATE t1 ( attribute-name := exp ) tuple compose: t1 COMPOSE t2

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21 EXERCISES (see Notes)

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