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A Presentation by Lee Lewis Herrington Dominic Orchard Duncan Stead Games for Training by Ralph Chatham.

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Presentation on theme: "A Presentation by Lee Lewis Herrington Dominic Orchard Duncan Stead Games for Training by Ralph Chatham."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Presentation by Lee Lewis Herrington Dominic Orchard Duncan Stead Games for Training by Ralph Chatham

2 Presentation Overview Roadmap towards Games for Training Review of the Paper by Ralph Chatham Future of Games for Training Conclusions

3 Definition of a Game Games for Training – Slide 3 of 44 Structured activity undertaken for enjoyment Sometimes used as an aid to education Early Learning Centre Ring a Ring a Roses Key Components Goals Rules Challenges Interactivity

4 Computer Games Games for Training – Slide 3 of 44 Invention of the computer leads to the birth of the computer game industry Pong Digital version of Ping Pong Sport Major commercial success on Atari Games industry then divides into two Games consoles driven by Nintendo, Sega & Sony Game software driven by Konami, Capcom & Electronic Arts

5 Computer Games Games for Training – Slide 4 of 44 Wolfenstein 3D – Super Nintendo late 90sBattlefield Hardware accelerated 3D Graphics Increased clock speed allowed faster graphics rendering Games present a more realistic experience

6 Networked Multiplayer Games Games for Training – Slide 5 of 44 Traditionally games are played using a single console and a monitor, screen is split to support multiple players Introduction of PC, LAN and internet creates a new genre of game that enables tens and eventually thousands of players to enter virtual worlds First popular game was Doom released in 1993 to critical almost religious like acclaim Military games appear that allow people to get a feel of what it is like to fight in a real war and the phrase serious games appears in the media

7 Serious Games Games for Training – Slide 6 of 44 Growing technical abilities of games to provide realistic settings, led to a re-examination of the concept of serious games in the late 1990s Rise of the multiplayer games such as Battlefield earth attracts interest of military and emergency services of the possibility of using virtual worlds to train soldiers and disaster management teams

8 Serious Games Games for Training – Slide 7 of 44 A game specifically designed to train a person or persons to fulfill a role or a given task in the real world by simulating as accurately as possible training scenarios in a virtual world Training games allow players to explore scenarios that are impossible or just to dangerous to simulate in the real world Extreme Weather Real time destruction of property Incendiary devices eg roadside bombs

9 Risks Costs & Benefits of Serious Games Games for Training – Slide 8 of 44 Risks Negative Transfer of Knowledge Games cannot easily model human behavior especially in combat scenarios when stress and fear can impair a persons response Over reliance of game training can provide a false sense of readiness which is dangerous in War

10 Risks Costs & Benefits of Serious Games Games for Training – Slide 9 of 44 Costs Upfront development can run to millions of pounds Continued royalty payments Benefits Simple & rapid distribution to a wide audience Complex scenarios can be explored that would be difficult to simulate in the real world such as freak weather. A current example would be a sand storm in Iraq which would reduce visibility Existing game engines can be re-used

11 Who is using computer games for training and what are they using them for? Games for Training – Slide 10 of 44 Aviation Significant costs associated with flying e.g. fuel, maintenance and actual lessons Training games allow a pilot to learn basic techniques and flight deck layouts before even stepping into a cockpit

12 Who is using computer games for training and what are they using them for? Games for Training – Slide 15 of 44 Commercial Driving schools use simulators to train pupils Companies use games to teach Health & Safety issues such as how to tackle fires and deal with emergencies

13 Who is using computer games for training and what are they using them for? Games for Training – Slide 12 of 44 Medical Industry Shortage of people donating bodies to medical science Obvious danger of practicing on humans Doctors can learn complicated surgery in the game

14 Who is using computer games for training and what are they using them for? Games for Training – Slide 13 of 44 Government Emergency Planning Language and cultural training for ministers before meeting foreign counterparts Games to train councils on how to manage financial budgets

15 Who is using computer games for training and what are they using them for? Games for Training – Slide 14 of 44 Military Dangers of warfare combined with the cost of munitions Need to simulate events occurring in places like Iraq such as convoy ambushes, urban warfare and civil unrest

16 Who is using computer games for training and what are they using them for? Games for Training – Slide 15 of 44 Military US Military trains millions of personnel Rapidly renewed force Many different situations This training can be done through games

17 Case study – Games for Training by Ralph Chatham Games for Training – Slide 16 of s and 80s saw a new phase of training centres and AAR (After Action Review) with limitations In 2001 & Recommendation for electronic deployment of experiential knowledge

18 Unexamined assumptions of training games Cheap to create, deploy & maintain Fast development & delivery Effective to transfer competence Trainer-less & unsupervised Universally accessible to anyone with a PC Games for Training – Slide 17 of 44

19 DARWARS A scheme started by DARPA to undertaken the development of games for training the military. Two training products under the DARWARS umbrella are discussed here Tactical Language & Culture Training Systems DARWARS Ambush! Games for Training – Slide 18 of 44

20 DARWARS won't teach you how to drive your 10-ton truck through narrow urban street, but it will teach you to look up when you do. DARWARS won't teach a pilot stick-and-rudder skills, but it will teach her to communicate with and support an inexperienced forward observer – Ralph Chatham DARWARS Games for Training – Slide 19 of 44

21 Tactical Language & Culture Training Systems Aims to provide soldiers with a basic knowledge of Culture Gestures Language Vocabulary Games for Training – Slide 20 of 44

22 You can't shoot, you must talk your way out Scene from the Iraqi Tactical Language Trainer Tactical Language & Culture Training Systems Games for Training – Slide 21 of 44

23 Based on the Unreal Engine However some problems Resource use Undocumented features Game developers stop fixing things when the game works Tactical Language & Culture Training Systems Games for Training – Slide 22 of 44

24 DARWARS Ambush! Training those involved in identifying, preparing, carrying out and recovering from ambushes. Scene from DARWARS Ambush! Games for Training – Slide 23 of 44

25 DARWARS Ambush! Games for Training – Slide 24 of 44 Multi-user, networked PC Based Allows users to learn from experience built by others Adaptable scenarios and maps

26 Ambush! - Flexibility Users can adapt scenarios Learn from their own ideas Embedded training on how to do this No continuing development costs for new scenarios Cost is users own labour Valuable Commander-identified training needs are met through user modification Games for Training – Slide 25 of 44

27 Why use game engines? Funding is often limited Therefore time of development is key Existing engines can provide a good environmental basis for the game Multitude of pre-built technologies Games for Training – Slide 26 of 44

28 Ambush! - Game Engine Operation Flashpoint - PROS Outdoor terrain Ability to modify map Vehicles Realism Multi-player support Relatively low sys. requirements Scene from Operation Flashpoint Games for Training – Slide 27 of 44

29 Ambush! - Game Engine Operation Flashpoint - CONS Licensing disputes Lack of source code access Games for Training – Slide 28 of 44

30 Distribution of DARWARS Ambush! Visits and face-to-face demos Word of mouth No hindrance of government bureaucracy Games for Training – Slide 29 of 44

31 Why has Ambush! succeeded? Understands training needs Training manuals on how to use Flexibility Rigorous testing Release early, release often (facilitated by using an existing game engine) Games for Training – Slide 30 of 44

32 Unexamined assumptions of training games Cheap to create, deploy & maintain Create - Use of engines requires negotiating licensing Expensive Broader licenses of older games Maintain - User adaptability Deploy Service costs Training the trainer Games for Training – Slide 31 of 44

33 Unexamined assumptions of training games Fast to provide development & delivery Use of a well understood well documented game engine (preferably with complete source access) But, game engines are typically only tested for gaming Games for Training – Slide 33 of 48

34 Unexamined assumptions of training games Effective to transfer competence Only if used in the correct environment Flexibility and adaptability help to disseminate experiential knowledge and grow new experience Games for Training – Slide 34 of 48

35 Unexamined assumptions of training games Trainer-less & unsupervised Unrealistic No golden disc that compels trainees to use it by themselves Humans must be available for effective training AARs – After Action Reviews Games for Training – Slide 35 of 48

36 Universally accessible to anyone with a PC System requirements must be met Military PCs are typically low spec Use of older engines may be more appropriate Unexamined assumptions of training games Games for Training – Slide 36 of 48

37 Conclusions from the paper Trainer-less trainers don't exist (not yet) Use of training software does not equal good training. Adaptability is key Use of existing engines has advantages and disadvantages Strong evidence of positive transfer of skills learnt in computer based trainers Games for Training – Slide 37 of 48

38 Future of Games for Training Further Adoption Technical Developments Conclusions Games for Training – Slide 38 of 48

39 Further Adoption Multi-purpose trainers Recruitment Games as an accessible first point of contact Introduce key concepts Raise awareness – Free advertising Negative training can form bad habits early Could mislead the wrong people into applying The popular Americas Army game was commissioned for recruitment and public relations Games for Training – Slide 39 of 48

40 Multi-purpose trainers Speculation Experimenting with possible (long term) future scenarios to aid decision making Full Spectrum Warrior was originally intended as a military simulation to test ideas for future US tactics, but ended as a commercial product. Shown above is Full Spectrum Command, used to train higher ranking officers Games for Training – Slide 40 of 48

41 Methods of distribution Downloadable Internet or Intranet. Typically cheaper than CDs/DVDs, and more prevalent as Ethernet/high speed ADSL is common Browser based Maximises accessibility, but technologically limited. Impossible to sell to individuals CDs/DVDs Relatively expensive, useful for image and simplicity Games for Training – Slide 41 of 48

42 Future Research Tools Building a complete training game (even a basic browser game) requires a team of dedicated professionals with knowledge of programming, art and audio. If simple tools were made available for making training games, could small scale games become interspersed throughout curriculum? Would it be possible (or even desirable) to have a general enough tool to fulfil all needs? Games for Training – Slide 42 of 48

43 Future Research 3D learning environments Research has been done into combining 3d worlds such as the popular Second Life with traditional teaching methods Possibility for supervised distance training Encourages peer learning and group work Games for Training – Slide 43 of 48

44 Technical Developments Applications to games for training Games for Training – Slide 44 of 48 Graphics The most identifiable part of a game – Aids immersion and product marketability Scalability – New engines often provide detail options to support older systems (the range varies) Physical models Modern games commonly incorporate rigid body dynamics using physics middleware (Havok, Ageia) - Enhances realism, but often irrelevant for training

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46 Technical Developments Applications to games for training Games for Training – Slide 46 of 48 Artificial Intelligence Although progress slower, the latest AI methods are usually adopted first in games (NNets, GA) Networking and Persistence Rise of Massively Multiplayer games – tech yet to be applied for making large scale training games Such games track and store data on thousands of clients simultaneously – this tech could be applied to the monitoring and after action review of huge groups (with data persisting between sessions)

47 Conclusion Games for training are still rare, especially in education There exist a few barriers to progress: Social acceptance Funding/High development costs Diverse, specialised requirements Commercial scepticism Games for Training – Slide 47 of 48

48 Conclusion There are some important lessons to be learned: Adaptability is important Using existing game engines can be extremely useful A good game engine doesn't mean good training Trainer-less training is not always possible Cognitive and communication skills can be trained effectively with games such as DARWARS Ambush! Games for Training – Slide 48 of 48

49 References Games for Training – Slide 48 of 48 Chatham, R. Games for training. Commun. ACM 50, 7 (Jul. 2007), Chatham, R. Training Superiority. The 2005 DARPATECH Symposium (Anaheim, CA, Aug. 2005); Freeman, K., MacMillan, J., Halmson, C., Well, S., Stave, W., ad Diedrigh, F. From Gaming to Training, Soceity fro Advanced Learning Technology, Orlando, FL. Feburary Smith, R. Game Impact Theory, The Five Forces That Are Driving the Adoption of Game Technologies within Multiple Established Industries, 2007, Games and Society Yearbook Serious game. (2007, November 29). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 16:08, November 30, 2007, from


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