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DCSP-1: Introduction Jianfeng Feng

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DCSP-1: Introduction Jianfeng Feng Department of Computer Science Warwick Univ., UK Jianfeng.feng@warwick.ac.uk

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DCSP-1: Introduction Jianfeng Feng Department of Computer Science Warwick Univ., UK Jianfeng.feng@warwick.ac.uk http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~feng/dcsp.html

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Time Tuesday (L) 11.00 –- 12.00 CS1.01 Wednesday (L) 12.00 13.00 room R1.13 Thursday (S) 12.00 -- 1.00 CS1.01 From this week, seminar starts Tian Ge

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Jianfeng Feng( ) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v= hvSgw50bc4Ihttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v= hvSgw50bc4I Treat female vs male as health vs patients http://edition.cnn.com/2011/10/04/ health/depressed-brains-hate- differently/index.html

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Computational Biomedicine: Big Data Find a needle in a haystack New York Times article

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Computational Biomedicine: Big Data Find a needle in a haystack New York Times article This module is all about data data data

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Announcement for Seminars 1.DCSP seminars (to cover DCSP tutorial problems) start in Week 2. 2. Students need only attend one seminar per week.

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Assignment The DSP assignment coursework will be issued in Week 4 The coursework is worth 20% of the module assessment and the submission deadline is 12 noon on Thursday Week 10 (i.e., 14th March 2013).

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References Any good book about digital communications and digital signal processing

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References Any good book about digital communications and digital signal processing Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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References Any good book about digital communications and digital signal processing Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Lecture notes is available at http://www.dcs.warwick.ac.uk/~feng/teaching/dcsp.html Currently I am working on a new version (added materials) to cover some modern topics including wavelet and Kalmann filter etc.

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This module is one of the hardest in our dept. since it heavily relies on math

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As usual, the harder the module is, the more useful it will be.

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This module is one of the hardest in our dept. since it heavily relies on math As usual, the harder a module is, the more useful it will be. Would be a big, big mistake if you miss too many lectures

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Introduction Movie, music, sound

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Detect what you are thinking Now? Using Fourier Transform

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The information carrying signals are divided into two broad classes Analog Digital

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Analog Signals Analog signals are continuous electrical signals that vary in time as shown below. Most of the time, the variations follow that of the non- electric (original) signal. The two are analogous hence the name analog.

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Example: Telephone voice signal is analog. The intensity of the voice causes electric current variations. At the receiving end, the signal is reproduced in the same proportion.

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Digital Signals Digital signals are non-continuous, they change in individual steps. They consist of pulses or digits with discrete levels or values. The value of each pulse is constant, but there is an abrupt change from one digit to the next. The values are anywhere within specific ranges and we define values within a given range.

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Digital Signals

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Advantages The ability to process a digital signal means that errors caused by random processes can be detected and corrected. Digital signals can also be sampled instead of continuously monitored and multiple signals can be multiplexed together to form one signal.

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Because of all these advantages, and because recent advances in wideband communication channels and solid-state electronics have allowed scientists to fully realize these advantages, digital communications has grown quickly. Digital communications is quickly edging out analog communication because of the vast demand to transmit computer data and the ability of digital communications to do so.

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Summary

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Data transmission: Channel characteristics, signalling methods, interference and noise, synchronisation, data compression and encryption;

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Information Sources and Coding: Information theory, coding of information for efficiency and error protection;

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Data transmission: Channel characteristics, signalling methods, interference and noise, synchronisation, data compression and encryption; Information Sources and Coding: Information theory, coding of information for efficiency and error protection; Signal Representation: Representation of discrete time signals in time and frequency; z transform and Fourier representations; discrete approximation of continuous signals; sampling and quantisation; stochastic signals and noise processes;

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Data transmission: Channel characteristics, signalling methods, interference and noise, synchronisation, data compression and encryption; Information Sources and Coding: Information theory, coding of information for efficiency and error protection; Signal Representation: Representation of discrete time signals in time and frequency; z transform and Fourier representations; discrete approximation of continuous signals; sampling and quantisation; stochastic signals and noise processes; Filtering: Analysis and synthesis of discrete time filters; finite impulse response and infinite impulse response filters; frequency response of digital filters; poles and zeros; filters for correlation and detection; matched filters;

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Data transmission: Channel characteristics, signalling methods, interference and noise, synchronisation, data compression and encryption; Information Sources and Coding: Information theory, coding of information for efficiency and error protection; Signal Representation: Representation of discrete time signals in time and frequency; z transform and Fourier representations; discrete approximation of continuous signals; sampling and quantisation; stochastic signals and noise processes; Filtering: Analysis and synthesis of discrete time filters; finite impulse response and infinite impulse response filters; frequency response of digital filters; poles and zeros; filters for correlation and detection; matched filters; Digital Signal Processing applications: Processing of images using digital techniques.

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Starting starting…..

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Data Transmission 1.1 General Form

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A modulator that takes the source signal and transforms it so that it is physically suitable for the transmission channel A transmitter that actually introduces the modulated signal into the channel, usually amplifying the signal as it does so A transmission channel that is the physical link between the communicating parties a receiver that detects the transmitted signal on the channel and usually amplifies it (as it will have been attenuated by its journey through the channel) A demodulator that receives the original source signal from the received signal and passes it to the sink

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Digital data is universally represented by strings of 1s or 0s. Each one or zero is referred to as a bit. Often, but not always, these bit strings are interpreted as numbers in a binary number system. Thus 101001 2 =41 10. The information content of a digital signal is equal to the number of bits required to represent it. Thus a signal that may vary between 0 and 7 has an information content of 3 bits.

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Written as an equation this relationship is I= log 2 (n) bits where n is the number of levels a signal may take. It is important to appreciate that information is a measure of the number of different outcomes a value may take. The information rate is a measure of the speed with which information is transferred. It is measured in bits/second or b/s.

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Examples Audio signals. An audio signal is an example of an analogue signal. It occupies a frequency range from about 200 Hz to about 15KHz. Speech signals occupy a smaller range of frequencies, and telephone speech typically occupies the range 300 Hz to 3300 Hz.. The range of frequencies occupied by the signal is called its bandwidth.

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A signal is bandlimited if it contains no energy at frequencies higher than some bandlimit or bandwidth B

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Examples Television. A television signal is an analogue signal created by linearly scanning a two dimensional image. Typically the signal occupies a bandwidth of about 6 MHz. Teletext is written (or drawn) communications that are interpreted visually. Telex describes a message limited to a predetermined set of alphanumeric characters. Reproducing cells, in which the daughter cells's DNA contains information from the parent cells; A disk drive Our brain

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Disadvantage of DSC Could you find out one or two?

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The conversion of analogue and digital signals In order to send analogue signals over a digital communication system, or process them on a digital computer, we need to convert analogue signals to digital ones. This process is preformed by and analogue-to-digital converter (ADC). The analogue signal is sampled (i.e. measured at regularly spaced instant) The converse operation to the ADC is performed by a digital-to-analogue converter (DAC).

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The ADC process is governed by an important law. Nyquist-Shannon Theorem (will be discussed in Chapter 3) An analogue signal of bandwidth B can be completely recreated from its sampled from provided its sampled at a rate equal to at least twice it bandwidth. That is S >= 2 B

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Example, a speech signal has an approximate bandwidth of 4KHz. If this is sampled by an 8-bit ADC at the Nyquist sampling, the bit rate R is R = 8 bits x 2 B=6400 b/s

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