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1 Data Link Protocols By Erik Reeber. 2 Goals Use SPIN to model-check successively more complex protocols Using the protocols in Tannenbaums 3 rd Edition.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Data Link Protocols By Erik Reeber. 2 Goals Use SPIN to model-check successively more complex protocols Using the protocols in Tannenbaums 3 rd Edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Data Link Protocols By Erik Reeber

2 2 Goals Use SPIN to model-check successively more complex protocols Using the protocols in Tannenbaums 3 rd Edition of Computer Networks Compare this approach to using other verification tools

3 3 Background Processes communicate using layers Each layer provides services to higher- level layers and ultimately to the user Physical Data Link Network … User Data A Layered Packet

4 4 Data Link Layer Sits between the physical and network layers For our purposes: provides non-lossy, error- free, and ordered communication for the network layer The physical layer will provide error-free communication, but packets may get lost.

5 5 Specification Safety: [] ! Bad_network_packet Liveness: [] (network_message_sent -> <> network_message_received) A packet is bad if it is not the packet expected

6 6 Problems with the Spec Ideally, requires an infinite queue to check Ideally, any packet can be sent. This can be implemented in SPIN with: packet new_packet; do :: (i if :: true-> new_packet.p[i]++ :: true-> skip fi :: else -> break od

7 7 Simplifications Use a finite queue, that loops around Use a packet size of 1, and pick between 0 and 1. 0,4,8 12,… 123 packet new_packet; if :: true-> new_packet.p[0]=0 :: true-> new_packet.p[0]=1 fi

8 8 Why OK? Finite-queue of k elements: not always ok (consider k=2, and drop 2). We must prove: [] ((network_sent – network_received) < k). Packet size 1: ok, since the physical layer can only lose packets. Any packet loss or reordering can be detected with just 1 bit.

9 9 Protocol 1 Assumes no packets are lost by the physical layer Assumes receiver infinitely fast sender() { packet buffer; frame s; do :: true -> A_from_network?to_sender(buffer);; A_to_physical!to_physical(s) } receiver() { packet pack; frame r,s; do :: true -> B_wait_for_event?to_receiver(); B_from_physical_layer?to_receiver(r); =; B_to_network!to_network(pack) }

10 10 Notes on Protocol 1 I use separate processes for the network, physical, and data-link processes (6 processes already!) Wire is multiple channel, all other communication is done with 0 width (synchronous) channels. Need to add a constraint to both properties: [] (num_packets_in_DLR < 2) With the constraint, both properties went through SPIN

11 11 Protocol 2 No longer assume infinite speed receiver Instead, receiver sends ack back to sender A B frame ack

12 12 Notes on Protocol 2 Up to 8 processes! Model-checker getting slow (liveness proof went 252,700 states deep) Never more than one message being dealt with at a time Both checks went through

13 13 Protocol 2_5 Tannenbaum mentions a simple extension to protocol 2 to make it handle dropped messages. Just set a timer on the sender, if the timer buzzes resend. Why doesnt that work? Safety proofs goes through if add the condition that the ack is never dropped

14 14 Protocol 3 Truly handle lost messages Add a one bit sequence number to the message and the ack. Also timeout as in 2_5. But how does one implement a timer in SPIN…

15 15 Timer Implementations Use the timeout keyword: Had problems with the timeout keyword sticking Use the scheduler: timer() { do :: timeout -> A_wait_for_event!to_sender(time_out) od } timer() { do :: true -> A_wait_for_event!to_sender(time_out) od }

16 16 More timer implementations Use non-determinism: timer() { do :: true -> do :: true -> skip :: true -> break od; A_wait_for_event!to_sender(time_out) od }

17 17 Notes on protocol 3 Proved liveness with the schedulers timer and safety under the timeout keyword. Looking for the right timer implementation Made a pretty and an ugly version of protocol 3. The ugly version gets rid of the physical senders

18 18 Protocol 4 Bidirectional 1-bit windowing protocol (only 1 bit ack) More efficient && symmetric Original implementation has 12 processes: my ugly version weans this down to 6 – and still does not make it through.

19 19 Notes on Protocol 4 I tried using various forms of compression, but never got a full search On the other hand, between my 5 implementations of protocol 4, SPIN caught a lot of errors.

20 20 3 More Protocols? There are three more data link protocols in Tannenbaums book. First n-bit windowing, then 1-bit sliding window, and finally the n-bit sliding window protocol Since Protocol 4 did not go through, …

21 21 Spin v. ACL2 ACL2 proof would work at a lower level: + ACL2 can handle more states - if the user can do the proof + SPIN has a better simulator: its tough to simulate this type of ACL2 code. (defun next_system_state (i system_state) (cond ((== i 0) (execute_A system_state)) (t (execute_B system_state))))... (thm (and (not (get-val bad_network_packet (init_state))) (implies (not (get-val bad_network_packet s)) (not (get-val bad_network_packet (next_system_state i s))))

22 22 Conclusions Model-checking complex protocols is hard SPIN is very good at helping users find bugs. The interactive simulator is useful. Try combining SPIN with theorem proving

23 23 Future Work Simplify the spec: Is there something simpler that will still distinguish ordering? Simplify the model: 6 processes are not really necessary. Implement a better timer Prove the network protocols in ACL2 or PVS for comparison

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