Presentation on theme: "1 Low Carbon Strategies: Experience of the University of East Anglia Visit by Representatives of Norwegian Municipalities 11 th September 2008 CRed Carbon."— Presentation transcript:
1 Low Carbon Strategies: Experience of the University of East Anglia Visit by Representatives of Norwegian Municipalities 11 th September 2008 CRed Carbon Reduction N.K. Tovey ( ) M.A, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук Energy Science Director CRed Project HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal 5 th October 2007
Original buildings Library Student residences Teaching wall
Low Energy Educational Buildings Nursing and Midwifery School Elizabeth Fry Building ZICER Medical School Medical School Phase 2
5 5 The Elizabeth Fry Building 1994 Cost ~6% more but has heating requirement ~25% of average building at time. Building Regulations have been updated: 1994, 2002, 2006, but building outperforms all of these. Runs on a single domestic sized central heating boiler.
66 Conservation: management improvements – Careful Monitoring and Analysis can reduce energy consumption. thermal comfort +28% User Satisfaction noise +26% lighting +25% air quality +36% A Low Energy Building is also a better place to work in
77 ZICER Building Heating Energy consumption as new in 2003 was reduced by further 50% by careful record keeping, management techniques and an adaptive approach to control. Incorporates 34 kW of Solar Panels on top floor Low Energy Building of the Year Award 2005 awarded by the Carbon Trust.
88 The ground floor open plan office The first floor open plan office The first floor cellular offices
Incoming air into the AHU Regenerative heat exchanger Operation of Main Building Mechanically ventilated using hollow core slabs as air supply ducts.
Air enters the internal occupied space Filter Heater Air passes through hollow cores in the ceiling slabs Operation of Main Building
Return stale air is extracted Return air passes through the heat exchanger Out of the building Operation of Main Building Recovers 87% of Ventilation Heat Requirement. Space for future chilling
Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures. Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs store heat from appliances and body heat Winter Day Air Temperature is same as building fabric leading to a more pleasant working environment Warm air
Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures. Heat is transferred to the air before entering the room Slabs also radiate heat back into room Winter Night In late afternoon heating is turned off. Cool air
Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures. Draws out the heat accumulated during the day Cools the slabs to act as a cool store the following day Summer night night ventilation/ free cooling Cold air
Fabric Cooling: Importance of Hollow Core Ceiling Slabs Hollow core ceiling slabs store heat and cool at different times of the year providing comfortable and stable temperatures. Slabs pre-cool the air before entering the occupied space concrete absorbs and stores heat less/no need for air- conditioning Summer day Warm air
Good Management has reduced Energy Requirements 800 350 Space Heating Consumption reduced by 57%
17 As Built 209441GJ Air Conditioned 384967GJ Naturally Ventilated 221508GJ Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER as built compared to other heating/cooling strategies Materials Production Materials Transport On site construction energy Workforce Transport Intrinsic Heating / Cooling energy Functional Energy Refurbishment Energy Demolition Energy 28% 54% 34% 51% 61% 29%
18 ZICER Building Photo shows only part of top Floor Top floor is an exhibition area – also to promote PV Windows are semi transparent Mono-crystalline PV on roof ~ 27 kW in 10 arrays Poly- crystalline on façade ~ 6/7 kW in 3 arrays
19 Arrangement of Cells on Facade Individual cells are connected horizontally As shadow covers one column all cells are inactive If individual cells are connected vertically, only those cells actually in shadow are affected.
20 Use of PV generated energy Sometimes electricity is exported Inverters are only 91% efficient Most use is for computers DC power packs are inefficient typically less than 60% efficient Need an integrated approach Peak output is 34 kW
22 Engine Generator 36% Electricity 50% Heat GAS Engine heat Exchanger Exhaust Heat Exchanger 11% Flue Losses3% Radiation Losses 86% efficient Localised generation makes use of waste heat. Reduces conversion losses significantly Conversion efficiency improvements – Building Scale CHP
UEAs Combined Heat and Power 3 units each generating up to 1.0 MW electricity and 1.4 MW heat
24 Conversion efficiency improvements 1997/98 electricitygas oilTotal MWh198953514833 Emission factorkg/kWh0.460.1860.277 Carbon dioxideTonnes91526538915699 ElectricityHeat 1999/ 2000 Total site CHP generation exportimportboilersCHPoiltotal MWh204371563097757831451028263923 Emission factor kg/kWh -0.460.460.186 0.277 CO 2 Tonnes -44926602699525725610422 Before installation After installation This represents a 33% saving in carbon dioxide
25 Conversion efficiency improvements Load Factor of CHP Plant at UEA Demand for Heat is low in summer: plant cannot be used effectively More electricity could be generated in summer
26 Conversion Efficiency Improvements Condenser Evaporator Throttle Valve Heat rejected Heat extracted for cooling Normal Chilling Compressor High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure
27 Condenser Evaporator Throttle Valve Heat rejected Heat extracted for cooling High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure Heat from external source Absorber Desorber Heat Exchanger W ~ 0 Adsorption Chilling Conversion Efficiency Improvements High Temperature High Pressure Low Temperature Low Pressure
28 A 1 MW Adsorption chiller Adsorption Heat pump uses Waste Heat from CHP Will provide most of chilling requirements in summer Will reduce electricity demand in summer Will increase electricity generated locally Save 500 – 700 tonnes Carbon Dioxide annually
The Future: Advanced Gasifier Biomass CHP Plant UEA has grown by over 40% since 2000 and energy demand is increasing. New Biomass Plant will provide an extra 1.4MWe, and 2MWth Will produce gas from waste wood which is then used as fuel for CHP plant Under 7 year payback rom waste wood and local sustainable sourcesLocal wood fuel from waste wood and local sustainable sources Will reduce Carbon Emissions of UEA by a further 35%
31 Target Day Results of the Big Switch-Off With a concerted effort savings of 25% or more are possible How can these be translated into long term savings?
32 How many people know what 9 tonnes of CO 2 looks like? 5 hot air balloons per person per year. In the developing world, the average is under 1 balloon per person On average each person in UK causes the emission of over 9 tonnes of CO 2 each year. In Norway 8 tonnes per person "Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he thought he could do only a little." Edmund Burke (1727 – 1797) 10 gms of carbon dioxide has an equivalent volume of 1 party balloon. At Gaoan No 1 Primary School in Xuhui District, Shanghai School children at the Al Fatah University, Tripoli, Libya
33 A Pathway to a Low Carbon Future for business 4.Renewable Energy 5.Offsetting Green Tariffs 3.Technical Measures 1.Awareness 2.Management
34 Worlds First MBA in Strategic Carbon Management First cohort January 2008 A partnership between The Norwich Business School and the 5** School of Environmental Sciences Sharing the Expertise of the University
35 Conclusions Buildings built to low energy standards have cost ~ 5% more, but savings have recouped extra costs in around 5 years. Ventilation heat requirements can be large and efficient heat recovery is important. Effective adaptive energy management can reduce heating energy requirements in a low energy building by 50% or more. Photovoltaic cells need to take account of intended use of electricity use in building to get the optimum value. Building scale CHP can reduce carbon emissions significantly Adsorption chilling should be included to ensure optimum utilisation of CHP plant. Promoting Awareness can result in up to 25% savings The Future for UEA: Biomass CHP Wind Turbines? Lao Tzu (604-531 BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading."