Presentation on theme: "CRed Carbon Reduction 1 HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation: Energy Science Director : School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia CNS."— Presentation transcript:
CRed Carbon Reduction 1 HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation: Energy Science Director : School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia CNS School 12 th October 2007 Energy security and climate change: the hard choices facing us. Keith Tovey ( ) M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv CRed Recipient of James Watt Medal 5 th October 2007
3 Latest Temperature Data from GISS 10/09/2007
Temperature Rise ( o C) Temperature Rise ( o C) Temperature Rise ( o C) Source: Hadley Centre, The Met.Office actual predicted Is Global Warming man made? Prediction: Anthropogenic only Not a good match between 1920 and 1970 Prediction: Natural only good match until 1960 Prediction: Natural and Anthropogenic Generally a good match Predictions include: Greenhouse Gas emissions Sulphates and ozone Solar and volcanic activity
5 Total winter precipitation Total summer precipitation Source: Tim Osborne, CRU Change in precipitation Increasing Occurrence of DroughtIncreasing Occurrence of Flood
6 (Source: Prof. Bill McGuire, University College London) Norwich Consequence of ~ 1m rise Consequence of ~ 6m rise Norwich City would be playing water polo!
Climate Change Arctic meltdown Summer ice coverage of Arctic Polar Region –Nasa satellite imagery Source: Nasa 20% reduction in 24 years
8 Options for Electricity Generation in Non-Renewable Methods Nuclear New Build assumes one new station is completed each year after 2018.
9 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
10 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable Area required to supply 5% of UK electricity needs ~ 300 sq km But energy needed to make PV takes up to 8 years to pay back in UK.
11 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable But Land Area required is very large - the area of Norfolk and Suffolk would be needed to generated just over 5% of UK electricity needs. Transport Fuels: Biodiesel? Bioethanol? Compressed gas from methane from waste.
12 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
13 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
14 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable Output GWh per annum Sufficient for house in Orkney Save tonnes of CO 2
15 Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
16 Solar Energy - The BroadSol Project Annual Solar Gain 910 kWh Solar Collectors installed 27th January 2004
17 House in Lerwick, Shetland Isles with Solar Panels - less than 15,000 people live north of this in UK! It is all very well for South East, but what about the North? House on Westray, Orkney exploiting passive solar energy from end of February
18 Opted Out Coal: Stations can only run for hours more and must close by 2015 New Nuclear assumes completing 1 new nuclear station each year beyond 2018 New Coal assumes completing 1 new coal station each year beyond 2018 Our Choices: They are difficult: Energy Security There is a looming capacity shortfall Even with a full deployment of renewables. A 10% reduction in demand per house will see a rise of 7% in total demand - Increased population decreased household size
19 Our Choices: They are difficult If our answer is NO Do we want to return to using coal? then carbon dioxide emissions will rise significantly unless we can develop carbon sequestration and apply it to ALL our COAL fired power stations within 10 years - unlikely. If our answer to coal is NO Do we want to leave things are they are and see continued exploitation of gas for both heating and electricity generation? >>>>>> Do we want to exploit available renewables i.e onshore/offshore wind and biomass. Photovoltaics, tidal, wave are not options for next 20 years. If our answer is NO Do we want to see a renewal of nuclear power Are we happy with this and the other attendant risks?
20 Our Choices: They are difficult If our answer is YES By 2020 we will be dependent on around 70% of our heating and electricity from GAS imported from countries like Russia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Algeria Are we happy with this prospect? >>>>>> If not: We need even more substantial cuts in energy use. Or are we prepared to sacrifice our future to effects of Global Warming by using coal? - the North Norfolk Coal Field? – Aylsham Colliery, North Walsham Pit? Do we wish to reconsider our stance on renewables? Inaction or delays in decision making will lead us down the GAS option route and all the attendant Security issues that raises.
21 Historic and Future Demand for Electricity Number of households will rise by 17.5% by 2025 and consumption per household must fall by this amount just to remain static Business as usual Energy Efficient Future ?
22 The Gas Scenario Assumes all new non-renewable generation is from gas. Replacements for ageing plant Additions to deal with demand changes Assumes 10.4% renewables by % renewables by 2025 Energy Efficiency – consumption capped at 420 TWh by 2010 But 68% growth in gas demand (compared to 2002) Business as Usual 257% increase in gas consumption ( compared to 2002) Electricity Options for the Future
23 Energy Efficiency Scenario Other Options Some New Nuclear needed by 2025 if CO 2 levels are to fall significantly and excessive gas demand is to be avoided Business as Usual Scenario New Nuclear is required even to reduce back to 1990 levels 25% Renewables by MW Wind MW Other Renewables inc. Tidal, hydro, biomass etc. Alternative Electricity Options for the Future
24 In groups for next 5 minutes discuss the following How should we generate electricity in the period up to 2030? Beyond 2030? How important is Energy Security? What is important to ensure Energy Security? What are your reactions to wind turbines? Decision Time for you
26 Wind Turbines are Incredibly Inefficient Efficiency: the ratio of the USEFUL work to the total energy available (or expended) Oxford English Dictionary Modern Wind Turbines convert 40 – 42% of available energy in the wind Modern Coal Fired Power Stations achieve 38% Sizewell B achieves 32% A car engine achieve % at best Compared to many other energy devices, Wind Turbines are Very Efficient
27 Is Efficiency being confused with Capacity Factor? The Capacity Factor is a measure of how much use is made of an appliance compared to the amount that could be achieved at rated output over a year. Wind Turbines have a Capacity Factor of 22% for first generation turbines in the East to 30%+ for the latest generation machines. Capacity factors are higher in the West and as much as 40% or more in places in Scotland. Even in East Anglia, capacity factors of 50% are achieved in some months. A capacity factor of 30% does not mean it is only working for 30% of the time. It means that it could be working at 30% of output for 100% of the time, 100% of output for 30% of time, or any combination between. The fact the turbine is working does not mean that it is at its rated output. Large coal and nuclear stations are off line for up to 50 days at a time – loosing equivalent output of turbines. A car driven miles has a capacity factor about 4%. A washing machine used 5 times a week has a capacity factor of 3%.
28 Some Myths about Wind Energy What happens when the wind does not blow?. Large Coal /Nuclear Stations trip/ have failures and these cause a loss of power within a matter of minutes. In terms of short term variations wind is more reliable. Wind Turbines kill birds. Evidence suggesta that a few birds are killed typically 3 per installed MW per year except in a few locations. In many cases it is much less Oldest wind farm in UK on Burgar Hill has an RSPB reserve right next to it. Currently UK has around 1700 MW wind turbines installed perhaps 5000 birds killed a year Estimates of 1 million killed each year by vehicles
29 How many people know what 9 tonnes of CO 2 looks like? 5 hot air balloons per person per year. Around 4 million in the Diocese of Norwich. In the developing world, the average is under 1 balloon per person Is this Fair? On average each person in UK causes the emission of 9 tonnes of CO 2 each year. "Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he thought he could do only a little." Edmund Burke (1727 – 1797)
30 Raising Awareness A tumble dryer uses 4 times as much energy as a washing machine. Using it 5 times a week will cost over £100 a year just for this appliance alone and emit over half a tonne of CO gms of carbon dioxide has an equivalent volume of 1 party balloon. Standby on electrical appliances 60+ kWh a year balloons. A Mobile Phone charger: up to 20 kWh per year ~ 1000 balloons each year. 10 kg CO 2 Filling up with petrol (~£38 for a full tank – 40 litres) kg of CO2 (5% of one hot air balloon) How far does one have to drive in a small family car (e.g cc Toyota Corolla) to emit as much carbon dioxide as heating an old persons room for 1 hour? 1.6 miles At Gaoan No 1 Primary School in Xuhui District, Shanghai
31 Saving Energy – A Practical Guide Ways to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint Micro Wind Micro CHP Heat Pumps
32 The Behavioural Dimension Household size has little impact on electricity consumption. Consumption varies by up to a factor of 9 for any given household size. Allowing for Income still shows a range of 6 or more. Education/Awareness is important
33 Transport Car: 5 door Toyota Yaris Real performance is best at ~ 50 mph. Saves up to 15% in fuel consumption cf 70 mph. Driver behaviour trials at Banham Poultry Driver behaviour affects performance Driver 2 uses 13.8% more fuel
34 Historic Trends: Freight Transport on Roads Distance each tonne has travelled has increased by: –223% since 1960 –20% since 1990 Is this increase in movement of freight conducive to optimum economic growth, energy security, and carbon reduction?
35 Electricity Statistics: Each house in Norwich consumes, 3727 kWh per year. Broadland 5057 kWh Breckland 5612 kWh North Norfolk 5668 kWh South Norfolk 5797 kWh Kings Lynn and 5908 kWh Great 5144 kWh West Norfolk Yarmouth A wind farm the size of Scroby Sands can supply twice domestic demand of Norwich or 66% on average. (or 22% of total demand) Saves ~ to tonnes of carbon dioxide a year or hot air balloons each year. The alternatives: Persuade motorists never to drive the car again Or motorists to drive 1000 miles less each year. Widespread deployment of small scale renewables, and energy conservation.
36 Involve the local Community The residents on the island of Burray (Orkney) campaigned for a wind turbine. On average they are more than self-sufficient in electricity needs and indeed are a net exporter of electricity. Many of the Islanders bought shares in the project and are now reaping the reward. Orkney is hoping to be a zero net emitter of carbon dioxide by 2015.
37 Involve the local Community Even better things are happening on the Island of Westray. The Parish Kirk, and Community Centre are heated by heat Pumps partly powered by Wind Turbines Waste cooking oil from other islands is processed into biodiesel for farm and other vehicles. Ethanol used in process is obtained from fermentation of harvested sea weed
38 Hard Choices What can we as individuals do? What can we do collectively as a Community? Visit the CRed WEB Site Sign a pledge to combat global warming help secure a sustainable environment for our children help reduce the adverse impacts of Global Warming help secure energy supplies for the future saving energy Adopting technical solutions Promoting Awareness Promoting appropriate renewable energy
39 In groups for next 5 minutes discuss the following What could you pledge to do at home? What could CNS Pledge to do? Decision Time for you
40 Conclusions Global Warming will affect us all - in next few decades Energy Security will become increasingly important. Inaction over making difficult decisions now will make Energy Insecurity more likely in future. Move towards energy conservation and LOCAL generation of energy and small changes to behaviour. It is as much about the individuals response to use of energy as any technical measures the Government may take. Wind (and possibly biomass) are the only real alternatives for renewable generation in next 5 – 10 years. Otherwise Nuclear??? Even if we are not convinced about Global Warming – Energy Security issues will shortly start to affect us.
41 WEBSITE Cred-uk.org/ This presentation will be available from tomorrow at above WEB Site: follow Academic Links Need to act now otherwise we might have to make choice of whether we drive 1.6 miles or heat an old persons room Conclusions Are you up to the Challenge?: Will you make a pledge? Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading."
42 Animation Courtesy of Rob Hannington
45 Latest Temperature Data from GISS 10/09/2007 These represent temperatures for US only
46 Wind Turbines are Incredibly Inefficient Efficiency: the ratio of the USEFUL work to the total energy available (or expended) Oxford English Dictionary Modern Wind Turbines convert 40 – 42% of available energy in the wind Modern Coal Fired Power Stations achieve 38% Sizewell B achieves 32% A car engine achieve % at best Compared to many other energy devices, Wind Turbines are Very Efficient
47 Is Efficiency being confused with Capacity Factor? The Capacity Factor is a measure of how much use is made of an appliance compared to the amount that could be achieved at rated output over a year. Wind Turbines have a Capacity Factor of 22% for first generation turbines in the East to 30%+ for the latest generation machines. Capacity factors are higher in the West and as much as 40% or more in places in Scotland. Even in East Anglia, capacity factors of 50% are achieved in some months. A capacity factor of 30% does not mean it is only working for 30% of the time. It means that it could be working at 30% of output for 100% of the time, 100% of output for 30% of time, or any combination between. The fact the turbine is working does not mean that it is at its rated output. Large coal and nuclear stations are off line for up to 50 days at a time – loosing equivalent output of turbines. A car driven miles has a capacity factor about 4%. A washing machine used 5 times a week has a capacity factor of 3%.