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Economic Activities Survey Design. Methods or Stages Informal –Documentary sources History, economic anthropology, geography, … –Observation –Household.

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Presentation on theme: "Economic Activities Survey Design. Methods or Stages Informal –Documentary sources History, economic anthropology, geography, … –Observation –Household."— Presentation transcript:

1 Economic Activities Survey Design

2 Methods or Stages Informal –Documentary sources History, economic anthropology, geography, … –Observation –Household accounts and previous surveys Field & Participatory (RRA, PRA/ PLA) research –Ethnography –Mapping & transects –Seasonality charts –Participatory Budgeting (key informants, focus groups) Expenditure Enterprises –Agriculture –Non-agriculture – businesses, employment, home production Formal Surveys Multi-purpose surveys

3 Survey process Research questions Theories, concepts, variables Choosing topics/modules Objectives drafttest assemble - How is well-being distributed and how has well-being has well-being changed over time? …. - Assess trends in and policies towards well-being - Households and their composition, livelihoods & capabilities, risk and insurance (income/consumption/assets/health/nutrition re-test implement, and manage capture, clean, process, validate Analyse, report & communicate -Household; housing & utilities; employment; agricultural income; household business; education; health & nutrition (children, women, men?); community (infrastructure, and public services, environment, markets & prices) Design sample Background research + stakeholders consultation (ethics) Plan – funding, staffing, transport, accommodation, expenses, health & safety Train enumerators & supervisors


5 Ghana LSMS Method (multi-purpose survey) Multiple visits; semi panel; See Grosh, Margaret E. and Glewwe, G., 1998, The World Banks Living Standards Measurement Study Household Surveys, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12(1): (also Grosh & Glewwe, 2000 in RTA Manual) And use of the Ghana data: See : Higgins, P. A. and Alderman, H., Labor And Women's Nutrition - The Impact Of Work Effort And Fertility On Nutritional Status In Ghana. Journal Of Human Resources. 32(3): Part A Section 0 Survey Information Section 1 Household Membership Section 2 Education & Literacy Section 3 Health status (previous 2 weeks) & health practices; fertility (15-49 yr old women) Section 4 Employment & time use, primary and secondary occupations – previous year Section 5 Migration (all > 15 yrs), in and out, and work while migrant Section 6 Identification of Respondents chosen for Round 3 (50%) – semi-panel Section 7 Characteristics of Housing, and utilities Part B Section 8 Agricultural and Pastoral Assets and Activities (previous year) including harvests and sales, consumption of own production Section 9. Household Consumption – non-food, infrequent and frequently purchased,; food Section 10 Non-food Expenditures and Inventory of Durable Goods Non-farm enterprises – characteristics, expenditures on and income from Transfers Section 12 Credit, Assets and Savings Section 13 Anthropometrics - children Section 14 Cognitive Skills -

6 Household Incomes & Wealth – farming/agro-eco systems & livelihoods frameworks & capabilities Agriculture Non-agriculture Farming systems crops horticulture homestead livestock Poultry (chickens, ducks, pigeons.. Small (sheep, goats, pigs, rabbits.. Large (cattle, buffalo, horses, donkeys, camels … Forestry Fish Gathering Production Trade Financial – interest on Loans and security Employment Remittances/transfers (inc. pensions) Rents of land & property Expenditures Raw materials Labour & supervision Consumables Utilities Financial (interest & working capital) Household assets – material – wealth index – who owns/controls? Land, buildings (no. rooms, materials for walls, roofs, floors; water and sanitation, jewellery, bank accounts, furniture & household equipment, consumer durables (radio, TV, fridge, stove), bicycles ….. Business assets buildings & equipment, stocks, good- will(?) Incomes sales change in stocks Public Goods, Common and Open Access Properties and Environment

7 Crops – farm budgeting areasField mapping (by season) -tillage (tractors, power tillers, animal, human) -seed/lings -fertlisers (type, quantity timing – cost with transport and credit) -Chemicals (pesticides/ insecticides, herbicides) -Manure (household, farmyard, bought, grazing, gathered) -Labour (household, hired & exchange/ communal) task (sowing, weeding, fertilising, spraying, other) and timing -Irrigation own costs, purchases water charges -Hired services & contractors -Finance & credit interest … -Subsidies & taxes -farmer report (local units) -Participatory mapping (relative sizes) -mapping with tape/wheel/rangefinder & compass (triangles) -Plan table & dumpy level (angle&distance) -GPS (waypoints or coupled to handheld computer -Total station -Electronic compass & laser rangefinder coupled to handheld computer -Remote sensing Number & location of fields/parcels (subplots) – soils, aspect, slope, hydrology, irrigation -Tenure – own, rented, mortgaged, shared, customary -Land use Quantities Point (cereals,etc) - units, number and weights Multiple -diaries, chitis? Disposal -sale, storage home consumption, animal feed) -quantities -values (transport& marketing, credit) InputsOutputs

8 Livestock & Fish Multi-purpose – store of wealth, savings, social status Multi-output – meat, milk, progeny - multi-point/frequent/continuous outputs Costs – purchase; feed, labour (multi-tasking); vetinary Outputs - home consumption, sales, gifts & ceremonies, Confusions of stock and flow Opening Stock (Cattle, poultry …) Beginning stock + births – deaths + purchases & gifts received – sales, gifts out & sacrifices.. Closing stock Flow – quantities & values -> prices Cattle - milk, whole animals, part animals, sold or home consumed (meat, hides … & manure (by-products) Poultry – eggs, whole animals, part animals For poultry include hatchlings etc. Avoid double counting – i.e. do not include value of sales in stock transactions; Consistency checks – stock change & transactions - Sales & disposals no greater than net stock transactions - compute unit values (+/- 2.5sd)



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