Presentation on theme: "Keith Tovey M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE Energy Science Director: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental Sciences Hethersett 22 nd November 2005."— Presentation transcript:
Keith Tovey M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE Energy Science Director: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental Sciences Hethersett 22 nd November 2005 Saham Toney 23 rd November 2005 CRed Saving Energy – A Practical Guide Ways to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint Hard Choices Ahead
Future Global Warming Rates
Total winter precipitation Total summer precipitation Source: Tim Osborne, CRU Change in precipitation
Climate Change Arctic meltdown Summer ice coverage of Arctic Polar Region –Nasa satellite imagery Source: Nasa 20% reduction in 24 years
Options for Electricity Generation in Non-Renewable Methods - figures taken from Energy Review 2002 Difficult Choices Ahead
Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
Transport Fuels: Biodiesel? Bioethanol?
Options for Electricity Generation in Renewable
Solar Energy - The BroadSol Project Annual Solar Gain 910 kWh Solar Collectors installed on house in Norwich 27th January 2004
Our Choices: They are difficult If our answer is NO Do we want to return to using coal? then carbon dioxide emissions will rise significantly unless we can develop carbon sequestration within 10 years which is unlikely If our answer to coal is NO Do we want to leave things are they are and see continued exploitation of gas for both heating and electricity generation? >>>>>> Do we want to exploit available renewables i.e onshore/offshore wind and biomass. Photovoltaics, tidal, wave are not options for next 20 years. If our answer is NO Do we want to see a renewal of nuclear power Are we happy on this and the other attendant risks?
Our Choices: They are difficult If our answer is YES By 2020 we will be dependent on around 70% of our heating and electricity from GAS imported from countries like Russia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Algeria Are we happy with this prospect? >>>>>> If not: We need even more substantial cuts in energy use. Or are we prepared to sacrifice our future to effects of Global Warming? - the North Norfolk Coal Field? Do we wish to reconsider our stance on renewables? Inaction or delays in decision making will lead us down the GAS option route and all the attendant Security issues that raises.
Government Response Energy White Paper – aspiration for 60% cut in CO 2 emissions by 2050 Will require unprecedented partnership activity in local communities to ensure on track by 2020s (– but no indication of how this will be undertaken) There will be much more local generation, in part from medium to small local/community power plant, fuelled by locally grown biomass, from locally generated waste, and from local wind sources. These will feed local distributed networks, which can sell excess capacity into the grid. - Energy White Paper: February 2003
How many people know what 9 tonnes of CO 2 looks like? 5 hot air balloons per person per year. Around 4 million in Norfolk On average each person in UK causes the emission of 9 tonnes of CO 2 each year. "Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he thought he could do only a little." Edmund Burke (1727 – 1797)
Some facts: A mobile phone charger left on even when not charging up to 20 kg CO 2 a year Standby on television > 60 kg per year Filling up with petrol (~£30 for a full tank) kg of CO 2 (5% of one balloon) How far does one have to drive in a small family car (e.g cc Toyota Corolla) to emit as much carbon dioxide as heating an old persons room for 1 hour? 1.6 miles Saving Energy – A Practical Guide Ways to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint
Saving Energy – A Practical Guide Ways to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint Some things to consider when buying/ using household appliances: Frost Free fridges/freezers typically consume 20% more energy. A tumble drier consumes approximately 4 times the energy of the equivalent washing machine. Always purchase at least an A rated fridge or freezer – preferably A+ (25% more efficient than A), or A++ (up to 50% more efficient) Pre-1999 fridges/freezers can consume up to 2.5 times as much energy as an A rated one. Avoid using halogen spot lights – there are now low energy varieties. Do not be confused between low-voltage and low-energy Watch out for LED lighting Check that new TVs, CD players etc have intelligent standby systems (i.e. they should be 1W only). Boiling a cup of water unnecessarily emits 25 cupfuls of carbon dioxide Putting the lid on a saucepan when boiling vegetables saves 90%
Saving Energy – A Practical Guide Ways to Reduce Your Carbon Footprint Micro Wind Micro CHP Heat Pumps
Many residents on island of Burray (Orkney) compaigned for a wind turbine. On average they are fully self-sufficient in electricity needs and indeed are a net exporter of electricity Involve the local Community
Electricity Statistics: City of Norwich Each house in Norwich consumes, 3727 kWh per year. Broadland 5057 kWh Breckland 5612 kWh North Norfolk 5668 kWh South Norfolk 5797 kWh Kings Lynn and West Norfolk 5908 kWh Great Yarmouth 5144 kWh A wind farm the size of Scroby Sands would supply 66% of domestic needs for whole of Norwich (or 22% of total demand) Would save ~ to tonnes of carbon dioxide a year or hot air balloons each year. The alternative: Persuade motorists never to drive the car again Or motorists to drive 1000 miles less each year.
Hard Choices What can we do individually? What can you do collectively in your School / Village / Community? Visit the CRed WEB Site Sign a pledge to combat global warming help secure a sustainable environment for our children help reduce the adverse impacts of Global Warming help secure energy supplies for the future saving energy –Technical solutions –Awareness promoting appropriate renewable energy
Conclusions Global Warming will affect us all - in next few decades Energy Security will become increasingly important. Inaction over making difficult decisions now will make Energy Security more likely in future. Move towards energy conservation and LOCAL generation of energy It is as much about the individuals response to use of energy as any technical measures the Government may take. Wind (and possibly biomass) are the only real alternatives for renewable generation in next 5 – 10 years. Otherwise Nuclear??? Even if we are not convinced about Global Warming – Energy Security issues will shortly start to affect us.
WEBSITE Cred-uk.org/ This presentation will be available from tomorrow at: www2.env.uea.ac.uk/cred/creduea.htm Need to act now otherwise we might have to make choice of whether we drive 1.6 miles or heat an old persons room Conclusions Are you up to the Challenge?: Will you make a pledge? Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading."