Presentation on theme: "CRed Carbon Reduction 1 Keith Tovey ( ) Н.К.Тови M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Energy Science Director: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental."— Presentation transcript:
CRed Carbon Reduction 1 Keith Tovey ( ) Н.К.Тови M.A., PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Energy Science Director: Low Carbon Innovation Centre School of Environmental Sciences, UEA. Rotary Club of Norwich Rotary District 1080 Conference: Saturday September 26 th 2009 The Path to a Sustainable Low Carbon Future for our Children: The Hard Choices Facing Us Recipient of James Watt Gold Medal
CRed Carbon Reduction 2 Increasing Occurrence of Drought
CRed Carbon Reduction 3 Increasing Occurrence of DroughtIncreasing Occurrence of Flood
CRed Carbon Reduction 4 1979 2003 Climate Change: Arctic meltdown 1979 - 2003 Summer ice coverage of Arctic Polar Region NASA satellite imagery الصيف الجليد في القطب الشمالي تغطية المنطقة القطبيه ناسا الصور الفضاءيه Source: Nasa http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2003/1023esuice.htmlhttp://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2003/1023esuice.html 20% reduction in 24 years 20 ٪ تخفيض في 24 سنوات تغير المناخ اثار على الجليديه القطبيه كاب 1979 - 2003 4
CRed Carbon Reduction 5 Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Non-Renewable Methods Gas CCGT 0 - 80% (curently 35%) Available now (but is now running out) ~2p + but recent trends put figure much higher UK becomes net importer of gas in 2004 Langeland and Balzand Pipe Lines completed Price projected by Government for Gas generation in 2020 5
CRed Carbon Reduction 6 Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Non-Renewable Methods Nuclear New Build assumes one new station is completed each year after 2018. Gas CCGT 0 - 80% (curently 35%) Available now (but is now running out) ~2p + but recent trends put figure much higher Carbon sequestration either by burying it or use methanolisation as a new transport fuel will not be available at scale required until mid 2020s 6
CRed Carbon Reduction 7 Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 88 Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable Scroby Sands had a Load factor of 25.8% but nevertheless produced sufficient electricity on average for 60% needs of houses in Norwich. At Peak time sufficient for all houses in Norwich and Ipswich
CRed Carbon Reduction 9 Micro Hydro Scheme operating on Siphon Principle installed at Itteringham Mill, Norfolk. Rated capacity 5.5 kW Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 10 Area required to supply 5% of UK electricity needs ~ 400 sq km - But energy needed to make PV takes up to 10 years to pay back in UK. Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 11 Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable But Land Area required is very large - the area of Norfolk and Suffolk would be needed to generate just over 5% of UK electricity needs. Transport Fuels: Biodiesel? Bioethanol? Compressed gas from methane from waste.
CRed Carbon Reduction 12 Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 13 Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 14 Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable Output 78 000 GWh per annum - Sufficient for 13500 houses in Orkney but there are only 4000 in Orkney. Controversy in bringing cables south Save 40000 tonnes of CO 2
CRed Carbon Reduction 15 Options for Electricity Generation in 2020 - Renewable
CRed Carbon Reduction 16 Our Choices: They are difficult: Energy Security Import Gap
CRed Carbon Reduction There is a looming capacity shortfall Even with a full deployment of renewables. A 10% reduction in demand per house will see a rise of 7% in total demand - Increased population decreased household size Our Choices: They are difficult: Energy Security
CRed Carbon Reduction 18 Do we want to exploit available renewables i.e onshore/offshore wind and biomass?. Photovoltaics, tidal, wave are not options for next 20 years. If our answer is NO Do we want to see a renewal of nuclear power ? Are we happy on this and the other attendant risks? If our answer is NO Do we want to return to using coal? then carbon dioxide emissions will rise significantly unless we can develop carbon sequestration within 10 years UNLIKELY If our answer to coal is NO Do we want to leave things are they are and see continued exploitation of gas for both heating and electricity generation? >>>>>> Our Choices: They are difficult
CRed Carbon Reduction 19 Our Choices: They are difficult If our answer is YES By 2020 we will be dependent on GAS for around 70% of our heating and electricity imported from countries like Russia, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Algeria Are we happy with this prospect? >>>>>> If not: We need even more substantial cuts in energy use. Or are we prepared to sacrifice our future to effects of Global Warming? - the North Norfolk Coal Field? Do we wish to reconsider our stance on renewables? Inaction or delays in decision making will lead us down the GAS option route and all the attendant Security issues that raises.
CRed Carbon Reduction 20 How many people know what 9 tonnes of CO 2 looks like? 5 hot air balloons per person per year. On average each person in UK causes the emission of 9 tonnes of CO 2 each year. "Nobody made a greater mistake than he who did nothing because he thought he could do only a little." Edmund Burke (1727 – 1797)
CRed Carbon Reduction 21 Raising Awareness A Toyota Corolla (1400cc): 1 party balloon every 60m. 10 gms of carbon dioxide has an equivalent volume of 1 party balloon. Standby on electrical appliances up to 20 - 150+ kWh a year - 7500 balloons. (up to £15 a year) A Mobile Phone charger: > 10 kWh per year ~ 500 balloons each year. Filling up with petrol (~£38 for a full tank – 40 litres) --------- 90 kg of CO2 (5% of one hot air balloon) How far does one have to drive in a small family car (e.g. 1400 cc Toyota Corolla) to emit as much carbon dioxide as heating an old persons room for 1 hour? 1.6 miles At Gaoan No 1 Primary School in Xuhui District, Shanghai A tumble dryer uses 4 times as much energy as a washing machine. Using it 5 times a week will cost ~ £100 a year just for this appliance alone and emit over half a tonne of CO 2. School children at the Al Fatah University, Tripoli, Libya
CRed Carbon Reduction 22 The Behavioural Dimension Social Attitudes towards energy consumption have a profound effect on actual consumption Data collected from 114 houses in Norwich For a given size of household electricity consumption for appliances [NOT HEATING or HOT WATER] can vary by as much as 9 times. When income levels are accounted for, variation is still 6 times
CRed Carbon Reduction 23 Involve the local Community -The BroadSol Project Annual Solar Gain 910 kWh Solar Collectors installed 27th January 2004 Members of community agreed to purchase Solar Panels at same time. Significantly reduced costs
CRed Carbon Reduction 24 Ways to Respond to the Challenge: Technical Solutions: Solar Photovoltaic Photovoltaic cells are still expensive, but integration of ideas is needed. Output depends on type but varies from ~70kWh to ~100kWh per square meter per year. Average house in Norwich consumes ~ 3779 kWh per year [14 th /408], in Eaton Rise District of Norwich ~ 3000 kWh West Norfolk, 6082 kWh [391 st /408] per year
CRed Carbon Reduction 25 Responding to the Challenge: Technical Solutions: The Heat Pump Any low grade source of heat may be used Coils buried in garden 1 – 1.5 m deep Bore holes Lakes/Rivers are ideal Air can be used but is not as good Best performance if the temperature source between outside source and inside sink is as small as possible. Heat pump delivers 3, 4, or even 5 times as much heat as electricity put in.
CRed Carbon Reduction 26 6 kW Proven Turbine powering a Heat Pump providing heating for Parish Kirk, Westray A good example of integration – similar arrangement in old peoples home and youth centre Horizontal Axis Mini Wind These devices are generally ineffective except in a very few locations
CRed Carbon Reduction Which can spread the message Engage with Schools Dispel myths Use simple messages that people understand often monetary values mean more Think about our own actions. –Tumble drying – once a week amounts to £25 a year Can we car share when going to District Council? –Four people travelled separately from North Norfolk to District 1080 Assembly. They would have emitted and extra 75kg CO 2 extra compared to travelling together at a cost of £30 extra in fuel. Energy Security issues will be just as important as Carbon reduction in the UK. Energy Security will increasingly affect us in next 10 years Global warming will increasingly affect our fellow citizens of the planet in the developing world in the next 10 years Addressing Energy Security by taking small steps now will also help with Global Warming Otherwise the Young will suffer during their life times. We in Rotary have the resources to work with the Young to combat the challenges facing us. Rotary is a Community
CRed Carbon Reduction 28 1.33 billion people 0.94 billion people Raw materials 1.03 billion people Products : 478 Mtonnes CO 2 increase (2002-05) Aid & Education The Unbalanced Triangular Trade Each person in Developed Countries has been responsible for an extra 463 kg of CO 2 emissions in goods imported from China in just 3 years (2002 – 2005)
CRed Carbon Reduction 29 WEBSITE www.cred-uk.org This presentation will be on WEB from this evening >follow Academic Resources Link Need to act now otherwise we might have to make choice of whether we drive 1.6 miles or heat an old person s room And Finally Are you up to the Challenge?: Will you make a pledge? Lao Tzu (604-531 BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher 604-531BC If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading.