7 Main Proponents Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP)Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)….= Sangh Parivar (Sangh Family)
8 What is Hindutva?Aim: to turn India into a Hindu countryHindu race is united by common traditions, experiences and memories of glory and disasterMuslims are considered ‘foreign troublemakers’ and ‘barbarian invaders’
9 What is Hindutva?The destruction of the Babri Masjid December 1992
10 What is Hindutva? Hindutva = ‘Hindu-ness’ = the form of Hindu nationalism that emphasises the supposed cultural essence of the Hindu nation, backed up by the myth of the Muslim as foreign invader.
11 What is Hindutva? Riots (Pogrom?) in Gujarat (2002) 900-2000 people killedpeople shiftedto relief campspeopledisplaced
12 The Political Economy of Hindutva A ‘shared cultural essence’:excludes the Muslim community from the nationerases from view the power relations that continue to exist among HindusMain supporters: upper caste, middle class
13 The Political Economy of Hindutva ‘Middle’ class?National Council for Applied Economic Research ( – urban households):16%: scooter21%: colour TV25%: refrigeratorNational Sample Survey Organisation ( – urban households):33 %: PCC of £50 for family of five8%: PCC of £95 for family of five
14 The Political Economy of Hindutva Middle class:Petty bourgeoisieMiddle ranks of professions and civil serviceWhite-collar employees in private sectorRich farmers and peasantsUpper caste:brahmin – kshatriya – vaishya(not: sudra – dalit)
15 The Political Economy of Hindutva Vedas: varnas derived from PurushaBrahmin: headKshatriya: armsVaishya: thighsShudra: feetHindu people are Virat Purusha (Almighty Incarnate)
16 The Political Economy of Hindutva A Changing India, from the 1960s onwards:‘failure of the Nehruvian model and growing disrepute of the Congress partyrise of the “Other Backward Castes” (OBCs)Mandal ReportLiberalisation and globalisation
17 The Political Economy of Hindutva Liberalisation and globalisation:connections with Hindutvadisinterest in the well-being of the poorauthoritarianism and brutalisation of culture and politicsliberalisation and India’s ‘Great Power’ Ambitions
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