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1 Sustainability Issues Energy Science Director HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation CRed Carbon Reduction BreckLand District Council 30 th July 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Sustainability Issues Energy Science Director HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation CRed Carbon Reduction BreckLand District Council 30 th July 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Sustainability Issues Energy Science Director HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation CRed Carbon Reduction BreckLand District Council 30 th July 2007 CRed Keith Tovey ( ) MA, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Acknowledgement: Karla Alcantar

2 2 Background Issues of Sustainable Building Construction/ Occupation – Thermal Performance issues Future Proofing Buildings - Fabric Cooling? –Management of Building Energy Use –Behaviour of the Occupants Renewable Energy and Integration of Design Life Cycle issues Transport Issues Conclusions Sustainability Issues Background Issues of Sustainable Building Construction/ Occupation – Thermal Performance issues Future Proofing Buildings - Fabric Cooling? –Management of Building Energy Use –Behaviour of the Occupants Renewable Energy and Integration of Design Life Cycle issues Transport Issues Conclusions

3 Climate Change Arctic meltdown Summer ice coverage of Arctic Polar Region –Nasa satellite imagery Source: Nasa 20% reduction in 24 years

4 4 Opted Out Coal: Stations can only run for hours more and must close by 2015 New Nuclear assumes completing 1 new nuclear station each year beyond 2016 New Coal assumes completing 1 new coal station each year beyond 2016 Our Choices: They are difficult: Energy Security There is a looming capacity shortfall Even with a full deployment of renewables. A 10-15% reduction in demand per house will see a rise of 7% in total demand

5 5 Renewable Electricity Generation in GB Renewable Generation represented 4.2% of final demand in 2005

6 6 Renewable Electricity Generation in GB by Region

7 7 Renewable Electricity Generation by type and County in EEDA Region The output from Scroby Sands is sufficient to provide 95% of domestic demands of Norwich and Ipswich combined or 30% of demand on average

8 8 % Renewables Rank of all districts ex 284 Notes Breckland41.45%11th36.6% from Thetford Great Yarmouth38.05%12th36.1% from Scroby Mid Suffolk19.12%27th15.9% from Eye GB Average4.20% Broadland4.09%93rd Ipswich2.91%116th Norwich2.59%129th Waveney2.22%143rd King's Lynn and West Norfolk1.45%170th South Norfolk1.31%175th St Edmundsbury1.05%185th Forest Heath0.99%189th North Norfolk0.68%205th Babergh0.00%284th = Suffolk Coastal0.00%284th = Proportion of Electricity Consumption provided by Renewables: Norfolk and Suffolk Districts

9 9 Background Issues of Sustainable Building Construction/ Occupation – Thermal Performance issues Future Proofing Buildings - Fabric Cooling? –Management of Building Energy Use –Behaviour of the Occupants Renewable Energy and Integration of Design Life Cycle issues Transport Issues Conclusions Sustainability Issues

10 10 Thermal performance has improved with better insulation. With better fabric insulation, ventilation can represent up to 80+% of heating energy requirements. Careful design of ventilation is needed lower capital costs vs lower environmental running costs. Are ESCOs a way forward? Provide optional environmentally efficient systems within all new buildings. Improved control – Smart (Sub) Metering Is traditional Cost Benefit Analysis the correct way to appraise low carbon systems? should insurance issues also be considered? Thermal Performance Issues: Future Proofing

11 11 The Climate Dimension Heating requirements are ~10+% less than in 1960 Cooling requirements are 75% higher than in Changing norm for clothing from a business suite to shirt and tie will reduce clo value from 1.0 to ~ 0.6. To a safari suite ~ 0.5. Equivalent thermal comfort can be achieved with around 0.15 to 0.2 change in clo for each 1 o C change in internal environment. Thermal Comfort is important: Even in ideal environment 2.5% of people will be too cold and 2.5% will be too hot. Estimate heating and cooling requirements from Degree Days Index 1960 = 100

12 12 Fabric Cooling using Hollow Core Slabs The concrete hollow core ceiling slabs are used to store heat and coolness at different times of the year to provide comfortable and stable temperatures Cold air Draws out the heat accumulated during the day Cools the slabs to act as a cool store the following day Summer night night ventilation/ free cooling

13 13 Warm air Pre-cools the air before entering the occupied space The concrete absorbs and stores the heat – like a radiator in reverse Summer day Fabric Cooling using Hollow Core Slabs The concrete hollow core ceiling slabs are used to store heat and coolness at different times of the year to provide comfortable and stable temperatures No air conditioning is needed even though the norm would have been to install air- conditioning In future, with Global Warming, when air-conditioners may be installed, they will be run over night to pre-cool building and improve efficiency of chillers

14 14 Ground Source Heat Pumps are an effective route to low carbon heating – can save 50 – 60% of carbon emissions. Work most efficiently with under floor heating. Can be used with fabric pre-cooling in summer with very modest air-conditioning Can be to provide some inter-seasonal heat store –i.e. reject heat in summer to acquifer/ground – recover during winter. There is ~ 3 months thermal lag in peak temperature in ground corresponding with early heating season use, and much improved coefficients of performance. Heat Pumps: A solution for a Low Carbon Future

15 15 Background Issues of Sustainable Building Construction/ Occupation – Thermal Performance issues Future Proofing Buildings - Fabric Cooling? –Management of Building Energy Use –Behaviour of the Occupants Renewable Energy and Integration of Design Life Cycle issues Transport Issues Conclusions Sustainability Issues

16 16 Heating energy requirement is strongly dependant on External Temperature. Thermal Lag in Heavy Weight Buildings means consumption requirements lags external temperature. Correlation with temperature suggests a thermal lag of ~ 8 hours. Potential for predictive controls based on weather forecasts Thermal Properties of Buildings Data collected 10th December 2006 – April 29th 2007

17 17 The Elizabeth Fry Building 1994 Cost ~6% more but has heating requirement ~25% of average building at time. Building Regulations have been updated: 1994, 2002, 2006, but building outperforms all of these. Runs on a single domestic sized central heating boiler.

18 18 User Satisfaction lighting +25% air quality +36% A Low Energy Building is also a better place to work in Careful Monitoring and Analysis can reduce energy consumption. Conservation: management improvements – thermal comfort +28% noise +26%

19 19 The space heating consumption has reduced by 57% Good Management has reduced Energy Requirements Acknowledgement: Charlotte Turner

20 20 The Management Dimension: Good Management will analyse data and use bands to identify anomalous behaviour. Management Quality Index one standard deviation/mean 0% - very poor control 100% - perfect control UEA: Low amount of scatter Management Quality index: 88% Office in Norwich: 72% Other Offices in East Anglia: 57%, 69%. UEA Heat Demand Example of Good Management Example of less good Management

21 21 Background Issues of Sustainable Building Construction/ Occupation – Thermal Performance issues Future Proofing Buildings - Fabric Cooling? –Management of Building Energy Use –Behaviour of the Occupants Renewable Energy and Integration of Design Life Cycle issues Transport Issues Conclusions Sustainability Issues

22 22 Household size has little impact on electricity consumption. Consumption varies by up to a factor of 9 for any given household size. Allowing for Income still shows a range of 6 or more. Education/Awareness is important Average Norwich Electricity Consumption Data from 114 houses in Norwich

23 23 Target Day Results of the Big Switch-Off With a concerted effort savings of 25% or more are possible How can these be translated into long term savings?

24 24 Social Awareness Impact on Climate Change

25 25 Background Issues of Sustainable Building Construction/ Occupation – Thermal Performance issues Future Proofing Buildings - Fabric Cooling? –Management of Building Energy Use –Behaviour of the Occupants Renewable Energy and Integration of Design Life Cycle issues Transport Issues Conclusions Sustainability Issues

26 26 Annual Solar Gain 910 kWh Solar Collectors installed 27th January 2004 Options for Renewable Energy: Solar Thermal

27 27 Options for Renewable Energy: Solar Thermal Performance of an actual solar collector 9 th December 2006 – 2 nd May 2007 Average gain (over 3 years) is kWh per day Central Heating Boiler rarely provides Hot Water from Easter to ~ 1 st October More Hot Water used – the greater amount of solar energy is gained Optimum orientation for solar hot water collectors for most houses is NOT due South

28 28 Options for Renewable Energy: Solar Photovoltaic Data based on Actual ZICER Building PV Costs Actual Situation excluding Grant Actual Situation with Grant Discount rate3%5%7%3%5%7% Unit energy cost per kWh (£) Avoided cost exc. the Grant Avoided Costs with Grant Discount rate3%5%7%3%5%7% Unit energy cost per kWh (£)

29 29 ZICER Building Photo shows only part of top Floor Top floor is an exhibition area – also to promote PV Windows are semi transparent Mono-crystalline PV on roof ~ 27 kW in 10 arrays Poly- crystalline on façade ~ 6/7 kW in 3 arrays

30 30 Arrangement of Cells on Facade Individual cells are connected horizontally As shadow covers one column all cells are inactive If individual cells are connected vertically, only those cells actually in shadow are affected. Options for Renewable Energy: Solar Photovoltaic

31 31 Sometimes electricity is exported Inverters are only 91% efficient Most use is for computers DC power packs are inefficient typically less than 60% efficient Need an integrated approach Peak output is 34 kW Options for Renewable Energy: Solar Photovoltaic

32 32 –Potential to substantially reduce CO 2 emissions –Significant reduction is losses from transmission but –problem of heat disposal in summer –Does not make sense to provide CHP with solar hot water heaters Consider using absorption chilling to provide cooling where required Options for Low Carbon Technologies: Micro CHP

33 33 Background Issues of Sustainable Building Construction/ Occupation – Thermal Performance issues Future Proofing Buildings - Fabric Cooling? –Management of Building Energy Use –Behaviour of the Occupants Renewable Energy and Integration of Design Life Cycle issues Transport Issues Conclusions Sustainability Issues

34 34 Life Cycle Issues – an issue in Sustainability –Does local sourcing of materials necessarily lead to a low carbon construction? –In case of PV it emits LESS CO 2 if cells are manufactured in Spain and transported to UK! – despite the transport!!!! –Need to be aware of how fuel mix used for generation of electricity affects CO 2. UK ~ 0.52 kg/kWh, Spain ~ 0.46 kg/kWh France ~ 0.06 kg/kWh To what extent does embodied carbon from construction and demolition affect total carbon emission? –Example: ZICER Building Sustainability in Building and Occupation

35 35 As Built GJ Air Conditioned GJ Naturally Ventilated GJ Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER as built compared to other heating/cooling strategies Materials Production Materials Transport On site construction energy Workforce Transport Intrinsic Heating / Cooling energy Functional Energy Refurbishment Energy Demolition Energy 28% 54% 34% 51% 61% 29%

36 36 Comparison of Life Cycle Energy Requirements of ZICER Compared to the Air-conditioned office, ZICER recovers extra energy required in construction in under 1 year. Comparisons assume identical size, shape and orientation

37 37 Background Issues of Sustainable Building Construction/ Occupation – Thermal Performance issues Future Proofing Buildings - Fabric Cooling? –Management of Building Energy Use –Behaviour of the Occupants Renewable Energy and Integration of Design Life Cycle issues Transport Issues Conclusions Sustainability Issues

38 38 Car: 5 door Toyota Yaris Real performance is best at ~ 50 mph. Saves up to 15% in fuel consumption cf 70 mph. Driver 2 has a fuel consumption 8% higher over mid range of speeds Driver behaviour trials at Banham Poultry Driver behaviour affects performance Driver 2 uses 13.8% more fuel The Transport Dimension: Behavioural Issues Yaris: Journey Norwich to Newcastle & return Driver 1 would save ~ 10+% or 4+ litres of petrol Extra time per journey < 20 minutes

39 39 Distance each tonne has travelled has increased by: –223% since 1960 –20% since 1990 Is this increase in movement of freight conducive to optimum economic growth, energy security, and carbon reduction? Car travel (2004 statistics): 679 billion passenger kilometres 398 billion vehicle kilometres Average occupancy (cf 1.81 in 1980) Raising occupancy to 1980 level would save 3.71 Mtonnes CO 2 Raising occupancy to 2 would save 9.9 Mtonnes CO 2 The Transport Dimension: Cultural Issues

40 40 Storeys = 2 & options Mapping Consumption automatically in existing buildings

41 41 Mapping Consumption automatically in existing buildings

42 42 Sustainable Buildings require: Initial sound design addressing: high insulation standards, effective control of ventilation: Attention to Future Proofing. Integration of use of building with provision of services. Avoidance of combining novel technologies which are incompatible. Use of most sustainable materials: Local provision of materials is NOT ALWAYS best – careful Life Cycle Assessments are needed. Provision of optional extras for all buildings including renewable technologies etc perhaps with alternative financing methods. Provision of SMART sub metering to inform the user. Improvements in training of users where newer technologies are used. a need for awareness raising. Conclusions Lao Tzu ( BC) Chinese Artist and Taoist philosopher "If you do not change direction, you may end up where you are heading."

43 43 Sustainability Issues Energy Science Director HSBC Director of Low Carbon Innovation CRed Carbon Reduction BreckLand District Council 30 th July 2007 CRed Keith Tovey ( ) MA, PhD, CEng, MICE, CEnv Acknowledgement: Karla Alcantar This presentation is now accessible on the WEB at: www2.env.uea.ac.uk/cred/creduea.htm


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