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Dr. Congxiao Shang Room No.: 01 37P Email: c.shang@uea.ac.uk Section 2: Basic Energy Economics Analysis ENV-2D02 (2006):Energy Conservation

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2.1 Introduction Decisions to an energy project should largely be made on the basis of economic analysis. Imperfect analysis of energy issues can be flawed, and give misleading answers on decisions made. A project costs: £100 To implement Viable £20 Annual Saving 1st2nd3rd 4th 5th £20

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2.1 Introduction An energy project should consider: - whether to promote energy conservation, i.e. energy saving, - or to develop new energy resources, such as wind, tidal energy, solar, hydrogen and biofuels etc Main objective: To assess whether an energy project is economically feasible.

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2.1 Introduction Decisions to an energy project should largely be made on the basis of economic analysis. Imperfect analysis of energy issues can be flawed, and give misleading answers on decisions made. A project costs: £100 To implement Viable £20 Annual Saving 1st2nd3rd 4th 5th £20

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2.1 Introduction Before answering the question – correctly … Lets revise some concepts for simple cost benefit analyses. Those who have done Environmental Economics will know some simplifications in what is described below.

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2.2 Discount Rate On the one hand, money borrowed to implement a project will incur interest charges which are compounded each year. On the other, the value of money or saving declines with time, due to inflation. To simplify the analysis, we use the present time as a reference for analysis (hence, interest charge is not an issue), the concept of a Discount Rate to account for inflation, and the Net Present Value (NPV) to evaluate the present value of future savings. The concept of discount rate is introduced because of the following facts :

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2.2 Discount Rates The term, discount rate, is used to determine the present value of future cash flows arising from a project, i.e. the discounted value of future cashflows, due to inflation. The actual value of the discount rate is equivalent to the basic interest rate that a high-street bank is charged to borrow funds directly from the Central Bank.

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2.2 Discount Rates We can analyse the economics of a project using the discount rate in two ways: Individual discount approach Cumulative discount approach For a conservation project which costs £100 to implement, we save £20 p.a. with a discount rate, r = 5%:

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The discount factor of the year n can be computed from the formula: 2.2 Discount Rates The NPV( Net Present Value) = (value of saving in the year n) (the discount factor of the year): reflects the value of the fuel saving would have if it were accounted at the present time rather than some years into the future. It accounts for the effect of inflation.

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The discount factor of the year n can be computed from the formula: 2.2 Discount Rates To sum up, the accumulated NPV fuel saving over the first five years is £86.59, which is still £13.41 short of repaying the initial capital of £100, i.e. a loss of £13.41, the project would not be viable However, if the projects life span is 6 years with no further cost, the total NPV becomes £100 +£1.51 For 7 years life span, the NPV = £100 + £15.72, certainly viable!

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Cumulative discount approach 2.2 Discount Rates It gives the cumulative factor of discount up to and including the year n. it is usually quicker to use such values rather then some the individual discount values as shown in the previous table

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How to calculate Cumulative discount factors? 2.2 Discount Rates The Cumulative Discount Factor in year n is the sum of all the discount factors from year 1 to year n The Cumulative NPV to year n is the sum of all the NPVs of individual savings from year 1 to year n; or = Annual saving x the Cumulative Discount Factor

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Project Life depends on a number of factors: A single initial cost Compensation factors, e.g. fuel price rises Offsetting factors, e.g. maintenance charges Competing schemes, e.g. a new process that gives more profit than the saving from the project, for the same initial investment 2.3 Project life and Choice of Discount Rate

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Life span: Small Schemes Exceptional Schemes with pay back period no more than 9-18 months Cost effective 2 years will be considered; Over 5 years rarely considered

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2.3 Project Life and Choice of Discount Rate Discount rates vary from time to time depending on the economic climate; Different organizations will set different target discount rates 1) A higher discount rate 10%+ favours coal and fossil fired power generation. 2) Moderate discount rates ~5% tend to favour gas and nuclear options. 3) Low discount rates, even zero, favour conservation and renewable energy.

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2.4 Fuel Price Rises 2.5 Negative Discount Rates

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At one discount rate, the NPV over the life of the project is 0, this corresponds to the Internal Rate of Return. The figure shows the results of analyzing the example in 2.2 with differing discount rates for a project life of 7 years. The NPV becomes zero for a discount rate of 9.2% - the Internal Rate of return. The graphical approach is much quicker to determine the IRR than a numeric method. 2.6 Internal Rate of Return (IRR)

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The IRR is the discount rate that makes net present value of all cash flow equal zero or the project will break even. If you apply a discount rate to future cashflows that is higher than the IRR, the project will make a loss in real terms. If you apply a discount that is lower than the IRR, the project will be profitable ProfitableNon-profitable

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2.7 The Changing Price Structure for Electricity & Gas Electricity Charges will be in three parts: 1.Charge to the Regional Electricity Company (REC) for transmission which will be the same for all suppliers 2.Charges for the actual units used 3.A charge for meter reading Gas Duel fuel

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2.8 Trends in Energy Tariffs In the case of electricity, the corresponding tariffs are: ( from WEB Site, 19th December 2005) EDF Tariff PowerGen Tariff Scottish Power Tariff

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2.8 Trends in Energy Tariffs Comparison of three electricity tariffs

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2.8 Trends in Energy Tariffs In the case of gas, the corresponding tariff for PowerGen: (19 th December 2005) Unlike the electricity, the gas tariffs were more uniform across the country. However, there are variations recently due to competition introduced to the distribution of gas as well

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2.9 Some Examples on loft insulation Example 1: Area of average house = 49m 2 Assume house with no loft insulation Situation after insulation measures * Energy costs based on tariffs from Dec. 2003. The differences indicate the rise in prices over last two years.

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2.9 Some Examples on loft insulation Gas heated (condensing boiler) case again Initial consumption will be 6.48 GJ (c.f. 30.6 GJ) for pre- war house. Initial annual consumption for post war house = 5.63 GJ (c.f. 17.8GJ) NOTE: you will be shown how to calculate the values of 6.48 and 5.63 later in the course. Example 2: Area of average house = 49m 2 ; some house with 50mm insulation already Calculation:

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2.11 Criteria for Investing in a Project The project must have a net positive present value over its life span The project has the most favourable rate of return when compared to other projects, or to direct investment (i.e. use IRR as an indicator here). If money has to be borrowed to undertake the project, then the rate of return must be greater than the borrowing rate. The rate of return must be significantly above the direct investment rate as capital is tied up and cannot be used for other things.

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2.2 Discount Rates Example of a compounded interest rate: A project is cost £ 100, borrowed at 5% interest rate The total amount repaid: £100×1.05=£105 After one year After two years The total amount repaid: £105×1.05=£110.25 By the end of fifth year The total amount repaid: £100 ×1.05 5 = £127.63 not £100 +5 × £100 × 5% = £125 in the simple interest case

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2.2 Discount Rates Optional Information : In fact a discount rate is slightly different from the interest rate, mathematically… The discount rate is based on the future cash flow in lieu of the present value of the cash flow. E.g. we have $80, and we buy a government bond that pays us $100 in a year's time. The discount rate represents the discount on the future cash flow: (100-80)/100= 20% The interest rate on the cash flow is calculated using 80 as its base: (100-80)/80= 25% Hence, for every interest rate, there is a corresponding discount rate, given by: d= i/(1+i) Again when referring to a cash flow being discounted, it will likely refer to the interest rate and not the proper mathematical discount rate. However, the two are separate concepts in financial mathematics.

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2.10 Some Comments on these examples. The examples show exactly how cost effective loft insulation can be particularly if there is no insulation to start with. It pays to install thicker insulation at outset as it will be cost effective (even if there is no grant). It becomes progressively uneconomic to upgrade insulation standards, and that if 100m already exists, it is not cost effective to upgrade, even though it is cost effective to put in 150mm from scratch The present grant system is a disincentive to those who have spent money in the passed. Grants of up to 90% are available for pensioners It is argued that the poor cannot afford the capital outlay. The poor will not have condensing boilers, and are more than likely to have electric heating, and pay back is within a few weeks. With an extended 90% grant, the capital cost is no more than £ 10, so this can hardly be construed as a deterrent Or see the lecture notes

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Scottish Hydro Scottish Power Northern Yorkshire Eastern London East Midlands SEEBOARD SWEB Southern NORWEB MANWEB Midlands SWALEC Scotland Шотландия England & Wales Англия и Уэльс Structure of Electricity Supply in early 1990s Структура системы энергоснабжения в начале 1990 г.г. Scotland Шотландия Vertical Integration Вертикальная интеграция two companies две компании England and Wales Англия и Уэльс 12 Regional Supply Companies 12 региональных компаний also Distributed Network Operators а также распределяющие сетевые операторы

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Regional Supply Ownership Владение региональных поставщиков Distributed Network Ownership in 2004 Scottish & Southern Scottish Power nPower PowerGen Electricité de France Scottish & Southern Scottish Power United Utilities Mid American Electricité de France Western Power Distributed Network Ownership Владение распределите льной сети PowerGen Aquila Central Networks Distributed Network Ownership in 2005 Владение распределительной сетью в 2005

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