Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

ENV-2D02 Energy Conservation Building Regulations Jane Powell (JC)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "ENV-2D02 Energy Conservation Building Regulations Jane Powell (JC)"— Presentation transcript:

1 ENV-2D02 Energy Conservation Building Regulations Jane Powell (JC)

2 What is energy conservation? Supply and Demand Supply and Demand Supply Supply More efficient production More efficient production CHPCHP Changing demand Changing demand More appropriate use More appropriate use Fuel switchingFuel switching Use less Use less Demand managementDemand management Reduce heat lossReduce heat loss Low energy appliancesLow energy appliances Behavioural changeBehavioural change

3 Why is energy conservation important? Climate change Climate change Limits to fossil fuels Limits to fossil fuels Security Security Risks Risks Threat to our current way of life Threat to our current way of life Fuel poverty Fuel poverty 2030 (EU) Based on present trends 90% imported oil 80% imported gas 3 million UK households

4 Observed and simulated change: natural and man-made factors Temperature change ºC observed model simulation + + Source: Hadley Centre

5 UK targets Kyoto targets Kyoto targets GHG 12.5% below 1990 levels GHG 12.5% below 1990 levels %; %; % %; %; % UK CO2 Targets UK CO2 Targets Previous target: 20% below 1990 levels by 2010Previous target: 20% below 1990 levels by 2010 New target: 60% below 1990 levels by 2050New target: 60% below 1990 levels by % 2010 target can be achieved by energy efficiency measures50% 2010 target can be achieved by energy efficiency measures Renewables Renewables 10% electricity generated by % electricity generated by % % 2004

6 Reduce heat loss & behavioural change Of who? Of who? Occupants Occupants Developers, planners, architects Developers, planners, architects What method? What method? Incentives Incentives SubsidiesSubsidies Economic instrumentsEconomic instruments Voluntary initiatives Voluntary initiatives Regulations Regulations

7 The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) 2002/91/EC 40% of final energy consumption in the EC is 40% of final energy consumption in the EC is in the buildings sector. Improving energy efficiency, carbon emissions Improving energy efficiency, carbon emissions from buildings could be reduced by 22%. from buildings could be reduced by 22%. Objectives of the Directive: To promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the EU through cost effective measures; To promote the improvement of the energy performance of buildings within the EU through cost effective measures; To promote the convergence of building standards towards those of Member States which already have ambitious levels. To promote the convergence of building standards towards those of Member States which already have ambitious levels. Measures include: Methodology for calculating the energy performance of buildings; Methodology for calculating the energy performance of buildings; Application of performance standards on new and existing buildings; Application of performance standards on new and existing buildings; Certification schemes for all buildings; Certification schemes for all buildings; Regular inspection and assessment of boilers/heating and cooling installations. Regular inspection and assessment of boilers/heating and cooling installations. Must be implemented by 4 Jan 2006

8 UK Response Part L Building Regulations (2005) Comes into force in England and Wales on 6 April 2006 (Scotland & Ireland to follow) Comes into force in England and Wales on 6 April 2006 (Scotland & Ireland to follow) Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM ) Office of the Deputy Prime Minister (ODPM ) Complies with EU legislation Complies with EU legislation Move away from energy conservation to carbon emission reduction Move away from energy conservation to carbon emission reduction UK National Calculation Methodology (NCM) for energy performance of buildings UK National Calculation Methodology (NCM) for energy performance of buildings

9 Deficiencies in earlier Building Regulations Before 1994 if double glazing was used Before 1994 if double glazing was used window area could be doubled window area could be doubled requirements for walls/roof/floor could be relaxed requirements for walls/roof/floor could be relaxed if overall loss < = standard house (type 1 trade off) if overall loss < = standard house (type 1 trade off) From 1995 From 1995 Could include incidental gains from appliance use/solar gains Could include incidental gains from appliance use/solar gains If consumption <= standard house - regulations could be relaxed further If consumption <= standard house - regulations could be relaxed further 1994 & 2000 regulations 1994 & 2000 regulations If triple glazing used window area can be increased by 50% (type 2 trade off) If triple glazing used window area can be increased by 50% (type 2 trade off) If higher insulations for walls used, greater window area permitted provided <= standard house. If higher insulations for walls used, greater window area permitted provided <= standard house. Traditionally framed for minimum compliance rather than actively promoting energy conservation Traditionally framed for minimum compliance rather than actively promoting energy conservation Less so by 2000 Regs Less so by 2000 Regs 2005 Regs tightened further 2005 Regs tightened further

10 Comparison of energy consumption for a standard detached house at various ages and improvements (Heat losses in W 0 C -1)

11 Effects of built form on energy consumption (Heat loss W o C -1 )

12 1994 Regulations Single glazing could no longer be used routinely for domestic buildings Single glazing could no longer be used routinely for domestic buildings Glazed area 22.5% of floor area Glazed area 22.5% of floor area 50% greater than 1990 regs 50% greater than 1990 regs 50% potential saving lost 50% potential saving lost Standard Assessment Procedure Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) rating for new buildings – higher the better – higher the better No target SAP but requirements relaxed if >60 No target SAP but requirements relaxed if >60 SAP – Regs automatically satisfied SAP – Regs automatically satisfied Includes energy running costs in calculation Includes energy running costs in calculation Trade offs permitted Trade offs permitted Does not specify ventilation rates but advise on estimating Does not specify ventilation rates but advise on estimating Make allowance for solar water heating Make allowance for solar water heating Include hot water requirements Include hot water requirements

13 Building Regulations 2000 Current regulations - implemented April 2002 Current regulations - implemented April 2002 Energy rating method Energy rating method SAP replaced by Carbon Index method for compliance SAP replaced by Carbon Index method for compliance SAP ratings still to be calculated and notified to building control bodies SAP ratings still to be calculated and notified to building control bodies Requirement of heating & hot water changed to encompass overall system performance, not just controls Requirement of heating & hot water changed to encompass overall system performance, not just controls Boiler seasonal efficiency, inspection & commissioning included Boiler seasonal efficiency, inspection & commissioning included New requirements for efficient lighting systems & provision of information for householders New requirements for efficient lighting systems & provision of information for householders Standards of fabric insulation improved Standards of fabric insulation improved Lower (better) standards (loft insulation) Lower (better) standards (loft insulation) Reductions in U values (technical limits) Reductions in U values (technical limits) Changed methods for calculating U values Changed methods for calculating U values Lower U values for windows Lower U values for windows Based on sealed double-glazed units with low emissivity panes Based on sealed double-glazed units with low emissivity panes Area of glazing increased to 25% floor area Area of glazing increased to 25% floor area Target U-value method retained but provisions for trade-offs improved. Target U-value method retained but provisions for trade-offs improved.

14 Compliance procedures 2000 Regulations Three methods to demonstrate compliance with Building Regulations: 1. Elemental approach 2. Target U-Value method 3. Carbon Index 1. Elemental approach – meet specific conditions 1. Elemental approach – meet specific conditions Heating must be gas, oil, heat pump, CHP DH, biogas or biomass Heating must be gas, oil, heat pump, CHP DH, biogas or biomass U-values < BR2000 standards U-values < BR2000 standards Area window, doors, roof lights <=25% floor area Area window, doors, roof lights <=25% floor area Boiler: SEDBUK efficiency >=78% gas, 80% LPG, 85% oil Boiler: SEDBUK efficiency >=78% gas, 80% LPG, 85% oil [SEDBUK – Seasonal efficiency of domestic boilers in the UK. The average annual efficiency achieved in typical domestic conditions.] [SEDBUK – Seasonal efficiency of domestic boilers in the UK. The average annual efficiency achieved in typical domestic conditions.]

15 2. Target U-Value method Calculate Target U-Value Calculate Target U-Value a function of areas of floor, roof, walls, windows etc a function of areas of floor, roof, walls, windows etc Modify target Modify target gas & oil boilers: actual SEDBUK efficiency gas & oil boilers: actual SEDBUK efficiency standard SEDBUK efficiency standard SEDBUK efficiency electric & coal heating: divide by 1.15 electric & coal heating: divide by 1.15 No modification for heat pumps, biomass, biogas, CHP No modification for heat pumps, biomass, biogas, CHP Modify target if area south facing windows > area north facing windows Modify target if area south facing windows > area north facing windows Calculate weighted average U-value of all external surfaces Calculate weighted average U-value of all external surfaces Weighted average U-value must be <= Target value Weighted average U-value must be <= Target value

16 3. Carbon Index Method Most complex method Most complex method Replaces SAP energy rating as a method of compliance Replaces SAP energy rating as a method of compliance Carbon index appears to be 0-10 Carbon index appears to be 0-10 Must be >= 8 to comply Must be >= 8 to comply Max carbon index 10 – but actually 17.7! Max carbon index 10 – but actually 17.7! Reality: 8 out of 17.7 or 4.5 out of 10! Reality: 8 out of 17.7 or 4.5 out of 10! SAP procedure is followed SAP procedure is followed up to point of introducing costs of fuels up to point of introducing costs of fuels actual annual energy consumption is used to calculate the annual carbon dioxide emission actual annual energy consumption is used to calculate the annual carbon dioxide emission translated into a carbon index translated into a carbon index

17 Standard Assessment Procedure (2001) Calculate U-values Calculate U-values Check U-values are achieved Check U-values are achieved Calculate Calculate gross heat requirements (Heat Loss Rate) gross heat requirements (Heat Loss Rate) hot water requirements hot water requirements incidental & solar gains incidental & solar gains effective gains effective gains effective internal temperature effective internal temperature corrected degree-day parameter corrected degree-day parameter net space heating total energy requirement net space heating total energy requirement Select heating method (pumps, appliance efficiency) Select heating method (pumps, appliance efficiency) Calculate Total Energy Requirement Calculate Total Energy Requirement Estimate energy costs of total space heating, hot water & pumps Estimate energy costs of total space heating, hot water & pumps Deflate energy by Energy Cost Factor – , Deflate energy by Energy Cost Factor – ,

18 Carbon Index Calculations (2000 regulations) Attempts to assess the true environmental performance of a building Attempts to assess the true environmental performance of a building Follow Standard Assessment Procedure to calculate Total Energy Requirement Follow Standard Assessment Procedure to calculate Total Energy Requirement Calculate CO2 emissions for building Calculate CO2 emissions for building Calculate Carbon Factor (CF) Calculate Carbon Factor (CF) CF=CO2 (TFA+45) where TFA is total floor space CF=CO2 (TFA+45) where TFA is total floor space Carbon Index (CI) CI= log10(CF) Carbon Index (CI) CI= log10(CF) Complication of scale >10 Complication of scale >10 Present regulations (2000) indicate that compliance is 11kg CO2 per m2 – carbon index of 8 Present regulations (2000) indicate that compliance is 11kg CO2 per m2 – carbon index of 8 If true scale was used Zicer & Elizabeth Fry would out perform the theoretical 10 out of 10 building. If true scale was used Zicer & Elizabeth Fry would out perform the theoretical 10 out of 10 building.

19 SAP U-values Total Energy Requirement Energy costs Energy Deflator (SAP 2001) CARBON Index C02 emissions Carbon Factor >=8

20 Carbon emissions for same house designed to different standards

21

22 Critique of the Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) Energy efficiency index – but gives a rating that is monetary based not energy based Energy efficiency index – but gives a rating that is monetary based not energy based Assumes a general heating level in house – no variation Assumes a general heating level in house – no variation Hot water requirements based on floor area formula not occupancy Hot water requirements based on floor area formula not occupancy Incidental gains based on floor area not occupancy Incidental gains based on floor area not occupancy Standing charge ignored for electricity, included for gas. Oil doesnt have a fixed charge (1994 & 2000) Standing charge ignored for electricity, included for gas. Oil doesnt have a fixed charge (1994 & 2000) Lower efficiency oil heating can give a higher SAP rating than more efficient gas Lower efficiency oil heating can give a higher SAP rating than more efficient gas Energy Cost Deflator Energy Cost Deflator Unnecessary complication that allows for inflation Unnecessary complication that allows for inflation 1994 Regs – possible SAP rating of over Regs – possible SAP rating of over 110 SAP of 100 achievable SAP of 100 achievable 2000 Regs – widen scale (over 120) to keep houses at similar value 2000 Regs – widen scale (over 120) to keep houses at similar value Better to have max of 100 for zero energy house Better to have max of 100 for zero energy house

23 Effective changes in SAP rating with specific changes (1994 regulations) SAP changes by: Change U-values by 10% 2 – 3 Change window area by 10% 1 – 2 Change floor area by 10% 4 – 5 Change heating from mains gas to LPG (little change in energy consumption) - 15 Change heating from condensing gas to inferior oil !!!!! Source: Monahan, J (2002) MSc Dissertation UEA; Turner, C. (2003) BSc Dissertation UEA

24 2006!!!

25 Draft 2005 Building Regulations Comes into force 6 th April 2006 Comes into force 6 th April 2006 Will use SAP 2005 Will use SAP 2005 Technical changes Technical changes Changes in how U values are calculated Changes in how U values are calculated Thermal bridging – weighted average to be considered, not just design Thermal bridging – weighted average to be considered, not just design Pressure testing of buildings for developments over a specific size Pressure testing of buildings for developments over a specific size U-values windows – include frames U-values windows – include frames Information on lighting use Information on lighting use Estimates of overheating in summer included Estimates of overheating in summer included Shading issues relating to solar gain must be addressed Shading issues relating to solar gain must be addressed

26 Draft 2005 Building Regulations: Compliance Greatest change is how compliance is achieved - five criteria : Dwelling Emission Rate (DER) Dwelling Emission Rate (DER) Gives considerable latitude in design Gives considerable latitude in design Limits on design flexibility Limits on design flexibility limits trade-offs limits trade-offs Limit effects of solar overheating Limit effects of solar overheating South facing windows, ventilation South facing windows, ventilation Quality of construction – evidence of actual performance Quality of construction – evidence of actual performance Quality of workmanship Quality of workmanship Pressure testing of large buildings & developments Pressure testing of large buildings & developments Providing information Providing information Maintenance and operation of the building Maintenance and operation of the building (Home Information Pack) (Home Information Pack)

27 Dwelling Emission Rate (DER) Is equal to CO2 emissions per unit floor area for space and water heating and lighting less emissions saved by energy generation Is equal to CO2 emissions per unit floor area for space and water heating and lighting less emissions saved by energy generation New dwellings & extensions New dwellings & extensions Non Dwellings & large dwellings >450m 2 Non Dwellings & large dwellings >450m 2 Building Emission Rate Building Emission Rate

28 SAP U-values Total Energy Requirement Energy costs Energy Deflator (SAP 2001) CARBON Index C02 emissions Carbon Factor >=8 Target Emission Rate C02/m 2 Dwelling Emission Rate DER { "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "ImageObject", "contentUrl": "http://images.slideplayer.com/3/799106/slides/slide_27.jpg", "name": "SAP U-values Total Energy Requirement Energy costs Energy Deflator 1-100 1-120 (SAP 2001) CARBON Index C02 emissions Carbon Factor >=8 Target Emission Rate C02/m 2 Dwelling Emission Rate DER=8 Target Emission Rate C02/m 2 Dwelling Emission Rate DER

29 UK National Calculation Methodology (NCM) for energy performance of buildings Compliance with the 2006 amendments to Part L of the Building Regulations in England and Wales (similar for Scotland and N. Ireland) Compliance with the 2006 amendments to Part L of the Building Regulations in England and Wales (similar for Scotland and N. Ireland) Dwellings: NCM new version of the existing Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) Dwellings: NCM new version of the existing Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) Non domestic buildings: Simplified Building Energy Model (SBEM) Non domestic buildings: Simplified Building Energy Model (SBEM) prototype prototype user interface called iSBEM. user interface called iSBEM. Purpose: to produce consistent and reliable evaluations of energy use in non-domestic buildings (and some domestic buildings) Purpose: to produce consistent and reliable evaluations of energy use in non-domestic buildings (and some domestic buildings) for building performance certification purposes (eventually) for building performance certification purposes (eventually) (Home information packs - 1 June 2007) (Home information packs - 1 June 2007)

30 SAP 2005 Regulations Basic methods similar to previous regulations Basic methods similar to previous regulations Calculations more complicated Calculations more complicated Takes into consideration Takes into consideration window frames window frames solar gain solar gain energy for lighting energy for lighting effect of thermal bridges effect of thermal bridges energy generated by micro CHP, photovoltaics, etc energy generated by micro CHP, photovoltaics, etc Problems with monetary values remain Problems with monetary values remain Recalibration of scale Recalibration of scale A house with a previous SAP rating will be reduced A house with a previous SAP rating will be reduced SAP 2005 rating is related to the energy cost factor (ECF) by: SAP 2005 rating is related to the energy cost factor (ECF) by: If ECF>=3.5, SAP 2005 = *log10(ECF)(1) If ECF>=3.5, SAP 2005 = *log10(ECF)(1) If ECF<3.5, SAP 2005 = *ECF (2) If ECF<3.5, SAP 2005 = *ECF (2) SAP rating scale (1-100) - SAP100 is achieved at zero ECF SAP rating scale (1-100) - SAP100 is achieved at zero ECF Can be >100 if house is net exporter of energy Can be >100 if house is net exporter of energy

31 Summary Table of U-values for different Building Regulations

32 English housing tenure by SAP rating, 2001 ODPM (2003)

33 Effects of Building Regulations Part L 2002, 2005 & 2008 amendments should increase efficiency of new build and extensions by 25% 2002, 2005 & 2008 amendments should increase efficiency of new build and extensions by 25% …but will it? …but will it?

34 What are the barriers to using building regulations to reduce energy use and carbon emissions ?

35 UK residential sector accounts for 30% total UK energy demand UK residential sector accounts for 30% total UK energy demand 1990 – – 2003 Total UK energy demand increased 7.3% Total UK energy demand increased 7.3% Residential energy increased 17.5% Residential energy increased 17.5% Since 1970 Since 1970 Energy use per household changed little Energy use per household changed little Overall energy use for residential sector increased by 32% Overall energy use for residential sector increased by 32% At household level At household level Reduction in heat loss – energy saving Reduction in heat loss – energy saving Increases in energy demand – lights & appliances Increases in energy demand – lights & appliances

36 Population & households UK population UK population current aprox 60 million current aprox 60 million – 72 million – 72 million Age structure Age structure 2003 – 76.2 men, 80.6 women 2003 – 76.2 men, 80.6 women 2031 – 81.0 men, 84.9 women 2031 – 81.0 men, 84.9 women Total population over 65 Total population over m, m, 2060s 17 m m, m, 2060s 17 m Household size Household size ; ; One person households: %, % One person households: %, %

37 Effects of household size on energy use Fawcett et al (2000)

38 Construction & demolition Building regulations are for new houses & extensions Building regulations are for new houses & extensions In UK very low levels of construction & demolition In UK very low levels of construction & demolition 2002/3 167,000 housing starts 2002/3 167,000 housing starts 1996 – 2004 nearly 160,000 dwellings demolished – 20,000/year 1996 – 2004 nearly 160,000 dwellings demolished – 20,000/year If we continued at this rate the average house will last 1000 years! If we continued at this rate the average house will last 1000 years!

39 Future of household energy supply lies in the hands of: Central government Central government 400 local authorities 400 local authorities 25 million households 25 million households Appliance and fuel supply industries Appliance and fuel supply industries Construction building services Construction building services Fragmented Fragmented Multiple suppliers of specialist products Multiple suppliers of specialist products Huge number of sub contractors Huge number of sub contractors Costs saved by: Costs saved by: reducing capital costsreducing capital costs standard componentsstandard components standard practicesstandard practices

40 Whole life costs/life-cycle costs typical costs for owning a building are in the ratio of : typical costs for owning a building are in the ratio of : 1 for construction costs 1 for construction costs 5 for maintenance costs 5 for maintenance costs 200 for building operating costs 200 for building operating costs Royal Academy of Engineering Source: Royal Academy of Engineering

41 Life cycle cost (LCC) LCC = Capital Cost LCC = Capital Cost + Present worth of Maintenance and Energy Cost + Present worth of Maintenance and Energy Cost - Present worth of Salvage value Capital cost Capital cost initial capital expense for equipment initial capital expense for equipment the system design, engineering, and installation. the system design, engineering, and installation. Maintenance: operation and maintenance costs/year Maintenance: operation and maintenance costs/year Energy cost: yearly fuel cost. Energy cost: yearly fuel cost. Salvage value: net value in the final year Salvage value: net value in the final year

42 Thank you


Download ppt "ENV-2D02 Energy Conservation Building Regulations Jane Powell (JC)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google