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Surveying Method chosen depends on:

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1 Surveying Method chosen depends on:
1. Introduction Surveying Method chosen depends on: by the purpose of the survey e.g. map making, location of specific points, definition of land ownership etc., by the nature of the survey itself e.g. hydrographic, terrestrial, astronomic, according to the scale or accuracy of the survey, the type of instrument or instruments used e.g. prismatic compass, level theodolite, photograph (terrestrial or aerial).

2 1. Introduction Other factors: Curvature of earth
over 5 km, vertical angle difference will approach 2.5 minutes which can readily be detected even with most basic theodolite. Errors collimation errors in instruments need to be calibrated otherwise “rivers could flow uphill” Surveying involves transfer of levels between two points measurement of angles and lengths. requires solution of triangular shapes using basic trigonometry (or by graphical means). If distances are large: planar geometry no longer applies.

3 1. Introduction Geodetic surveys allow for curvature of Earth
1:2500 scale maps actually vary in scale On extreme east and west coasts, scale is approximately 1:2501 Reference is taken along 2 oW where scale is 1:2499 Along Greenwich Meridian and 4oW scale is 1:2500 Surveying Instruments can be very accurate Instruments in ENV are capable of accuracies of 1 part in with ease if used correctly. Maps in UK are based on cartesian co-ordinates North is represented by a bearing of 000. East a bearing of 090, South-west a bearing of 225 etc. Referencing: True North: Grid North: Magnetic North .

4 2. Basic Surveying Methods
Point location - radial line and distance method. . N O Difference in the Easting (E) is given by:- Northing difference (N)is given by:- True co-ordinates of the second point:- Easting = Northing = where is the length of the line, and  is the bearing where Eo is Easting and No is Northing of the reference station. This method can ONLY be used if there is an INBUILT reference direction in the instrument - e.g. magnetic north

5 2. Basic Surveying Methods
Point location - radial line and distance method. . No inbuilt reference N O Two horizontal angles are ALWAYS needed i.e. a reading to R (a reference object) as well as object of interest R Applies to most instruments: Total Stations Theodolites Levels etc

6 Internal Triangle of Errors External Triangle of Errors
2. Basic Surveying Methods A B C Point location - Resection Internal Triangle of Errors N C B A C External Triangle of Errors B A Coordinates of A and B are known Point C found from bearings at A and B or bearings from C to A and B B C D A Methods to distribute errors are needed P

7 2. Basic Surveying Methods
Point location - Traverse Methods Open Traverse Errors accumulate a b A1 c b a c A1 Closed Traverse Errors can be distributed A2 b a c A1 Closed Loop Traverse Errors can be distributed e d

8 2. Basic Surveying Methods
Point location - Offset Methods 2 d2 1 d1 A B D1 D2 Useful for mapping features Not suitable where accuracy is required

9 2. Basic Surveying Methods
Height Measurement Level Ground Base Accessible Level Ground Base Not Accessible

10 2. Basic Surveying Methods
Height Measurement Sloping Ground Base Accessible Observations to same height above ground H ds H Sloping Ground Base Accessible Observations to different height above ground

11 2. Basic Surveying Methods
Sloping Ground Base Accessible Base and Top above and below observer Height Measurement H1 H2

12 Careful Planning is needed
3. Planning a Survey Careful Planning is needed A single missed reading will make whole survey of no value Need to provide checks Abstract raw data in field Repeat readings if necessary before leaving site. Remember an extra set of readings may take 15 minutes - but to remobilise and set up again may take many hours schedule breaks effectively.

13 3.2 Basic Requirements A clear statement of purpose of survey is needed e.g. mapping vegetation boundaries; estimating river bank plan shape or erosion rates; determining flow characteristics in rivers; establishing fixed reference stations for future use; locating the point at which a particular set of measurements have been taken; measurement of the profile of a slope; assessment of regions liable to flooding. scale of the map required (if relevant). . The purpose of the survey will dictate the scale and accuracy required and ultimately the methods to be used.

14 Secondary Planning Requirements include:-
3.2 Basic Requirements Secondary Planning Requirements include:- what equipment is actually available what time is available what man-power is available what access and transport are available. over what distance will the surveying party be spread during the surveying? Will it be necessary to return to the same site at a later date to take repeat measurements, and if so when (within a few days, or several weeks or months later?). How will contact between members of the surveying team be maintained at distance?

15 3.2 Basic Requirements Mapping vegetation boundaries:
accuracy ~ 1:1000 (1 m is represented by 1 mm), Suitable surveying methods: compass and tape traverses, chain and offset mapping, point resection using a prismatic compass. height variations, Abney levels will often be adequate. Alternative methods, if the equipment is available, use of a surveyor's level and tachymetery, use of electro-magnetic distance measurement.

16 Difference in water surface elevation in a river is small,
3.2 Basic Requirements Water Slope Measurement Difference in water surface elevation in a river is small, Measurement requires accurate measurement of height differences over distances which are usually between 10m and 500m apart. A good surveying level for which the collimation error is known is required. Otherwise river may appear to flow uphill!!

17 3.2 Basic Requirements Fixed Control Points
Measurements will be needed to the nearest millimetre (centimetre) even if associated mapping detail is not required at this level of accuracy. Sometimes, such as in the vegetation survey, simple methods can be used including prismatic compasses to establish stations, Control stations will be located more accurately using a theodolite and associated equipment.

18 3.2 Basic Requirements Surveying River Banks Methods Decisions needed
Radial Line Techniques using tachymetry for general plan shape of meanders (general profile ~5m). More accurate methods involving the establishment of short permanent base lines on the bank parallel to the long stream direction of the river are needed for erosion studies. accurate profiles of bank are determined using metre rule offsets from this reference line to the edge of the river bank. ~ m Decisions needed what constitutes the edge of the channel?

19 Markers: Permanent: Temporary????
3.2 Basic Requirements Size of Survey Party:- what equipment is to be used for accuracy access for vehicles e.g. a theodolite requires a tripod and targets may also require targets mounted on tripods could require a minimum of three tripods and ancillary equipment. Often makes sense to establish control stations separate from detailed purpose of survey Communication Radios Flags? Markers: Permanent: Temporary????

20 3.3 Booking of Data in waterproof notebooks should be logical
should always be done in the field if necessary it can be transcribed BUT the ORIGINAL BOOKING MUST ALWAYS be accessible. Cross checking should be booked in field Critical Information which should always be present Purpose of Survey: (River Bank Mapping at Maes Mawr) Date: Time: Weather: Specific Location Sketch of Area Booker’s Name: Observer’s Name

21 3.4 Permissible Errors

22 3.5 Treatment of Errors Systematic Errors Random Errors
collimation errors in instrucments magnetic errors affecting all readings at a particular location Systematic errors (unless large) can be compensated - will always be present and calibration is important. Random Errors observer variations in reading a scale Mean is standard deviation is 0.09

23 3.5 Treatment of Errors Snedecor’s Rule Where R is range of readings

24 Gross Errors should always be discarded
3.5 Treatment of Errors Random Errors Mean is should this value be used? Exclude and mean is standard deviation is 0.10 value of is 12 standard deviations from mean and should be excluded. Gross Errors should always be discarded

25 Gross Errors should always be discarded
3.6 Provision of Checks Going to repeat a survey is time consuming Always provide a check pace out a distance sight on three positions rather than basic two if measuring three stations - take readings at all three stations - sum of angles should be 180o For Level transfers e.g. elevation profile of longstream of river trace river from start to finish transfer level back along back - differences should be same if errors are unacceptable (e.g. 20 mm per 1 km) then repeat until consistency is achieved Mean is should this value be used? Exclude and mean is standard deviation is 0.10 value of is 12 standard deviations from mean and should be excluded. Gross Errors should always be discarded

26 3.7 An example of Bad Planning
ENV students doing their third year project in 1992 in Derbyshire needed to map meanders decided to use radial line method and tachymetry using level measured A to RO RO measured radial lines at A A moved to B B measured B to A measured radial lines at B C moved to C etc D E Despite careful planning points B, C, D and E could not be located! Lady Bower Reservoir

27 3.7 An example of Bad Planning
RO What should have been done? Before leaving Derbyshire, map should have been plotted. A Before moving from A to B measure A to B B When at B measure from B to A C

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