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5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology Naples 2001 12th - 14th September Image Analysis Lecture 1 Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology Naples 2001 12th - 14th September Image Analysis Lecture 1 Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology Naples th - 14th September Image Analysis Lecture 1 Introduction

2 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 morning: 2 lectures (45/60 mins): 2 practicals (45/60 mins) afternoon: 2 lectures (45 mins): 2 practicals (60 mins) morning: 2 lectures (45 mins): 2 practicals: (60 mins) afternoon: 2 practicals (90/60 mins): 1 lecture (60 mins) morning: 2 lectures: 45 min: 2 practicals:(60 mins) afternoon: 2 lectures (45 mins): 2 practicals (60 mins) Image Analysis (Provisional Timetable) 12th September: 13th September 14th September

3 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric Practical 2: Image Acquisition Practical 3: Image Formats - requirements of image processing/analysis: manual methods of measurement on digital images Practical 4: Image enhancement/filtering/contrast stretching. Practical 12th September

4 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 13th September 5. Thresholding - interactive methods including manual editting, low pass filters: use of HIT and MISS transforms. Practical 6. Morphological/Orientation based segmentation Practical Practical 7. Analysis of Segmented images - particle size/perimeter/feret diameter. Practical

5 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 14th September 8. Introduction to binary Morphology Methods (Opening/Closing) Practical 9. Grey Level Morphology: Multi-Spectral Methods Practical 10. More advanced Image Restoration: Basic Batch Processing Practical / Demonstrations 11. Engineering Applications of soil microfabric analysis. Practical / Demonstrations

6 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric Interpretation - Scale / magnification is important - but it is even more important with digital image analysis/quantification What is this image?

7 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric

8 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric

9 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric Subjective Methods (may include quantification): A. Methods using normal Photographs Presence/Absence of features or numbers of features (point counting) [classification]. Sand grain texture - presence / density of upturned plates is characteristic of wind blown sand. Sand grain texture - typical of fluvial environment

10 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric A. Methods using normal Photographs (contd). Subjective Ranking using a single parameter - e.g. orientation. On a scale of 1 to 10 how orientated is sample? 0 - random 10 - completely orientated? Image shows predominantly kaolin which has been sheared. Degree of orientation affects mechanical properties

11 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric A. Methods using normal Photographs (contd). Subjective Ranking using multiple parameters -e.g. shape/ size/roughness/ weathering etc. Often done in tabular form with each attribute weighted on a scale of 1 to 5 or 1 to 10. Must be careful to ensure there is no overlap of criteria - for eample when does roughness take over from shape?

12 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric A. Methods using normal Photographs (contd). Manual/Subjective delineation of areas of similar texture, orientation, aggregation, particle composition etc. Areas of similarly shaped particles or orientation may be manually delineated an areas evaluated. Advantage if areas are computed by image analysis software.

13 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric B. Non-Digital Quantititative Microfabric Analysis Stereophotogrammetric Methods Can give accurate three dimensional orientation of features Unconsolidated Kaolin kaolinite

14 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric Unconsolidated Kaolin - picture width = 6.2 m

15 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric Kaolinite - picture width = 6.2 m

16 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric B. Non-Digital Quantititative Microfabric Analysis Optical Methods Optical Diffraction Convolution Square [of historic relevance as digital methods can now achieve same thing] to be covered in later lecture Upturned plates and diffraction pattern Consolidated clay - diffraction pattern shows degree of orientation

17 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric B. Other Quantititative Microfabric Analysis Methods [covered briefly in course] Confocal/ Three Dimensional Analysis Confocal Microscopes: all sectioning is done directly and allow a build up of the three dimensional structure of fabric within the thickness of a thin section. Automontage / Montage Explorer Facilities like Auto-Montage and Montage Explorer can also achieve similar reconstruction as well as greatly improving resolution of the optical microscope by removing limitations from focus [it is hoped that a short presentation of these will be possible]

18 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric C. Digital Image Analysis Approaches Manual / Interactive Methods Semi / Fully Automatic Methods Batch Processing

19 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric C. Digital Image Analysis Techniques to be covered in course Thresholding / Segmentation Discrete Feature Analysis Binary Morophological Methods Grey Level Methods Intensity Gradient Methods / Morphological Segmentation Multi-spectral Methods

20 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 1 1: Introduction to Analysis of Microfabric Point Counting


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