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5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology Naples 2001 12th - 14th September Image Analysis Lecture 11 Engineering Applications of Soil Micromorphology/

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Presentation on theme: "5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology Naples 2001 12th - 14th September Image Analysis Lecture 11 Engineering Applications of Soil Micromorphology/"— Presentation transcript:

1 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology Naples th - 14th September Image Analysis Lecture 11 Engineering Applications of Soil Micromorphology/ Microfabric Analysis

2 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Engineering Applications Quantitative Methods Examples of Intensity Gradient Analysis New methods for porosity analysis Dynamic Studies Applications to a Palaeosol of coast of Hong Kong

3 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Intensity Gradient/Orientation Analysis There is evidence to show particles do align perpendicular to principal stress direction. BUT Orientation is far from complete.

4 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. How does orientation vary within a sample? Over 350 separate estimates of orientation were made on this sample. The location of each image is indicated by the + while the length of the line and direction indicate the degree of anisotropy and the preferred direction respectively. In this sample the microfabric is very uniform These results were obtained with a fully automatic system

5 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Other samples are less uniform Uniform in places, but shear discontinuities evident

6 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Microfabric changes on shearing

7 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

8 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Detail across a failure zone At the edges of the failure zone, the Index of Anisotropy is less than outside region, but there is a sharp change in angle on either side - suggesting a kink zone failure.

9 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. New developments in Porosity Studies Original ImageBinary Version of Restored Image Flow of fluids is high influenced by path length Which is shortest path across image?

10 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Path highlighted is shortest continuous path

11 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

12 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Original Image Binary Version of Restored Image

13 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Slight differences are apparent if 4-point or 8-point connectivity is assumed

14 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

15 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Problem with 8-point connectivity Are voids or particles continuous at these points? No problem with 4-point connectivity

16 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Dynamic Studies: - deforming soils in SEM Shear Box used in 1973 study

17 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. VIDEO of dynamic deformation

18 School of Environmental Sciences 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. A Study of Hong Kong Marine Soils

19 Simplified Sequence of Deposition During last inter-glacial deposition of unit M2 When sea level fell, surface layer was exposed to desiccation, oxidation, pedogenesis, etc. In the Holocene, the sea probably covered the area around years ago deposition of unit M1 M1 T1 M2 ~ 10m Press Return to continue 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

20 Classification according to Yim (1994)

21 School of Environmental Sciences Freeze-dried example of recent Marine Soil (0.5m depth) 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Bintang Bolon The Gambia

22 School of Environmental Sciences Open fabric preserved in Hong Kong Holocene deposit 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

23 School of Environmental Sciences Fabric in M1 unit beneath Trial Embankment showing flow patterns around silt sized grains 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

24 School of Environmental Sciences Aggregates of stacks of kaolinite particles showing evidence of cementation: Kwai Chung Container Terminal 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

25 School of Environmental Sciences Deposition of amorphous material at base of M1 unit borehole T8. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

26 School of Environmental Sciences Schematic showing different changes in fabric from consolidation. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

27 School of Environmental Sciences Sand grains filling crack in palaeo-desiccated layer 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

28 School of Environmental Sciences Pyrite within Hong Kong Marine Soil 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

29 School of Environmental Sciences Sulphate reducing bacteria and framboid of pyrite in recent marine clay 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications. Bintang Bolon: The Gambia

30 School of Environmental Sciences Pyrite within a decaying root of mangrove: The pyrite appears to form away from the bacteria Bintang Bolon: The Gambia 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

31 Pyrite in Chek Lap Kok marine clay also show concentration of nickel. Image analysis shows varying degrees of oxidation within the pyrite. 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

32 School of Environmental Sciences Formation of halite crytals Optical Micrograph showing halite crystal 100 m + in size in desiccation crack Small halite crystals (1 - 5 m in size on side of root salt tolerant Mangrove 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

33 School of Environmental Sciences Optical Micrograph of halite crystal and corresponding trace in BSE image 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.

34 Procedure of segmentation is know as Mineral- Segmentation 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 9: Multi-Spectral Methods

35 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 9: Multi-Spectral Methods Index of Anisotropy outside aggregate: inside aggregate: In both cases the predominant orientation is nearly vertical. Vertical direction in field.

36 Image acquisition Image Processing Image enhancement Filtering Image reconstruction Image Analysis Quantitative analysis Interpretation The four Is of Microfabric Analysis 5th Intensive Course on Soil Micromorphology - Naples 2001 Image Analysis - Lecture 11: Engineering Applications.


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