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N. Keith Tovey, M.A. PhD, C.Eng MICE Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук Energy Science Director Low Carbon Innovation Centre University of East Anglia,

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Presentation on theme: "N. Keith Tovey, M.A. PhD, C.Eng MICE Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук Energy Science Director Low Carbon Innovation Centre University of East Anglia,"— Presentation transcript:

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2 N. Keith Tovey, M.A. PhD, C.Eng MICE Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук Energy Science Director Low Carbon Innovation Centre University of East Anglia, Norwich 16th November 2004 The changing face of the Electricity Market in the UK Изменяющееся лицо рынка электроэнергии в Британии Университета Восточной Англии

3 The changing face of the Electricity Market in the UK A brief review of the UK Electricity Industry prior to Краткий обзор состояния британской электроэнергетики перед приватизацией в 1990 г The Electricity Markets in the 1990s after Privatisation Рынки электроэнергии в 1990 г после приватизации The New Electricity Trading Arrangements Новая система оптовой торговли НЕТА The Supply of Electricity since 1990 Сбыт электроэнергии с 1990 Brief Review of the Regulator/Customer Protection/Metering

4 A brief review of the UK Electricity Industry prior to Краткий обзор состояния британской электроэнергетики перед приватизацией в 1990 г The changing face of the Electricity Market in the UK Electricity Generation and Supply differences in approach between England / Wales and Scotland. Генерация и сбыт - раличия между регионами Fuels used for generation Топливо, используемой для генерации

5 The Generation and Distribution of Electricity has always been different in Scotland compared to England and Wales (Шотландия всегда отличалась от Англии и Уэльса производством и распределением э/э ) Scotland Шотландия Scotland (Шотландия): Two vertically integrated companies supplying discrete areas England and Wales Англия и Уэльс England and Wales (Англия и Уэльс): One Generating Company (CEGB) and 12 Regional Electricity Suppliers (Одна генерирующая компания (CEGB) и 12 региональных поставщиков). [CEGB did NOT supply electricity to consumers] EdF Electricité de France 2000 MW

6 Scottish Hydro Scottish Power Northern Yorkshire Eastern London East Midlands SEEBOARD SWEB Southern NORWEB MANWEB Midlands SWALEC Scotland Шотландия England & Wales Англия и Уэльс Structure of Electricity Supply before and immediately after Privatisation in 1990 Scotland Vertical Integration two companies England and Wales 12 Regional Supply Companies also Distributed Network Operators.

7 Generating Capacity Surplus/Deficit Избыток/дефицит объема производства on February 12th 18:00 (февраль 12, 18:00) +ve: generating capacity exceeding demand (производство превышает потребление) -ve: demand exceeding generating capacity (потребление превышает производство) Most Generating Capacity is in the North - most demand is in South Наибольший объем производства на Севере - потребления на Юге MW Interconnector to Scotland Interconnector to France

8 Immediately prior to Privatisation Mid 1990s At start of New Electricity Trading Arrangments

9 Изменяющееся лицо рынка электроэнергии в Британии Demand has risen by 50% since 1970 (Потребление возросло с 1970 на 50 %) Large rise in output from CCGT since 1993 (Большой рост CCGT производства с 1993) Nuclear output increased steadily but is set to decline (Производство ядерной э/э возрастало постепенно, но пошло на убыль) Coal [Oil] generation has fallen rapidly since Privatisation (Производство угля (нефти) резко сократилось после приватизации)

10 Decision on how electricity was to be generated was done on a generating set basis (Производство э/э осуществлялось согласно следующим принципам: Generating Sets to run were selected on Merit Order. Based on Marginal Costs (Основано на маргинальных ценах) (i.e. the fuel costs - цены на нефть) Some generating sets were run OUT of MERIT ORDER where system constraints were an issue. Generators sold electricity to Regional Electricity Boards (Производители продавали э/э региональным министерствам э/э) Electricity Boards sold to consumers in their Area only (Региональные министерства продавли э/э потребителям только своей области) Prices to consumers varied between regions (Цены для потребителей варьировались по регионам) Electricity Generation - pre 1990 Производство э/э - до 1990

11 Most Generating Capacity in North (Наибольший объем производства на Севере) Most coal-fired stations in North (Большинство угольных станций на Севере) Most Oil-fired stations in South (Большинство нефтяных станций на Юге) Nuclear stations - distributed around coast (Атомные станции рассредоточены по побережью) Most Hydro stations are in Scotland (Большинство ГЭС в Шотландии) Изменяющееся лицо рынка электроэнергии в Британии Significant power flows North > South

12 Central Electricity Generating Board Центральное 12 Regional Electricity Companies 12 Региональных э/э компаний Coal (Угольные) Fired Power Stations Oil (Нефтяные) Fired Power stations Gas Turbine (Газовы турбины) Stations Hydro Stations (ГЭС) Nuclear Stations (Атомные) Transmission (Трансмиссия) National Power Национальная энергетика PowerGen Nuclear Electric National Grid Company Национальная сетевая компания 12 Regional Electricity Companies (12 Региональных э/э компаний) Privatisation of Electricity Supply Industry 1990 Приватизация в области энергетики в 1990

13 Typical UK Electricity Demand in Winter 2003

14 Typical UK Electricity Demand in Summer st August 2002

15 The changing face of the Electricity Market in the UK A brief review of the UK Electricity Industry prior to Краткий обзор состояния британской электроэнергетики перед приватизацией в 1990 г The Electricity Markets in the 1990s after Privatisation Рынки электроэнергии в 1990 г после приватизации The New Electricity Trading Arrangements Новая система оптовой торговли НЕТА The Supply of Electricity since 1990 Сбыт электроэнергии с 1990 Brief Review of the Regulator/Customer Protection/Metering

16 The Electricity Markets in the 1990s after Privatisation Рынки электроэнергии в 1990 г после приватизации The changing face of the Electricity Market in the UK The bidding process - Pool Input and Pool Output Процесс подачи заявок в системе пула The Electricity Pool Электрический пул

17 Eastern ** Industry- Промышленность Independents- Независимые Electricité de France InnogyNuclear Electric *BNFL (Magnox)PowerGen RECs Licensed Suppliers Лицензирова нные поставщики Consumers Потребители Second Tier Consumers Вторичные потребители The Pool Пул Scottish Nuclear (Атомная) * Consumers Потребители Scottish Hydro Scottish Power Scotland England and Wales

18 Only the Generators (>100 MW) bid into the POOL to supply electricity e.g. National Power (now Innogy), PowerGen etc (В торгах POOL принимали участие только производители (>100 MW), таки как Национальная Энергетика (теперь Innogy), Powergen и т.д.) The National Grid Company published projected demands for the following day and invited bids (Национальная сетевая Компания выдавала данные по спросу на следующий день и инициировала торги) The Generators supplied bids for each generating set in each station for each half-hour period of the following day (Производители снабжали заявки на каждой станции для каждого получасового периода следующего дня) The NGC sorted bids to determine which generating sets would be used for each particular period, and which ones would have capacity made available (NGC классифицировало заявки по каждому периоду The Operation of The Electricity Pool: 1990 – 2001 Функционирование Электрического Пула:

19 Bid from company B £19.31 per MWh Bid from company A £19.20 per MWh (0.96R / kWh) Bid from company D £19.40 per MWh Bid from company E £19.50 per MWh Bid from company C £19.32 per MWh Range of bids from companies in range £18 - £19 per MWh Roubles per kWh Range of bids from companies in range £15 - £18 per MWh Roubles per kWh Range of bids from companies in range <£15 per MWh 0.75 Roubles per kWh MW 1250 MW MW System Marginal Price = £19.31 SMP Companies up to and including B successful £1 ~ 50 Roubles

20 All Companies who were successful were paid the SMP for all units generated irrespective of what their bid was (Все Компании, успешно оплатившие SMP независимо от цели заявки ) The bids were for the single half-hour period and fresh bids were required for all half hour periods (Заявки были на отдельные получасовые периоды и новый запрос делался каждые пол часа) It was possible for companies to bid £0 and this would guarantee that they generated and paid SMP (Было достаточно подать нулевую заявку и это гарантировало выработку и выплату SMP) –However, if all Companies did the same they would have to generate electricity for nothing (Хотя если бы так поступали все компании электричество вырабатывалось бы в пустую) In addition to the SMP, there was also a capacity charge relating to the generating capacity which was requested to be available The Operation of The Electricity Pool Работа электрического Пула

21 Capacity Charge paid to all Generators who had been requested to have capacity available. -based on formula(по формуле): LOLP * (VOLL - SMP) Loss of Load Probability The Operation of The Electricity Pool VOLL: was set by the Regulator at around £2400 per MWH (Была установлена Регулятором примерно около 120 Roubles за 1 kWh) LOLP: normally a very low figure but could become significant if there was a shortfall in generating capacity (обычно незначительная цифра может стать важной если наблюдается дефицит выработки) Capacity Charge: signal to ensure sufficient capacity was available. Pool Input Price (PIP) = SMP + LOLP * (VOLL - SMP) Value of Lost Load

22 Some Power Stations constrained ON to ensure security of supply even when their bid was more expensive (Некоторые электростанции constrained ON обеспечить снабжение, даже в случае более дорогих заявок) Some Power Stations constrained OFF even when their bid was cheaper (-excess of capacity in one region) (Некоторые электростанции constrained OFF обеспечить снабжение, даже в случае более дешевых заявок) Constrained Stations paid their Bid Price (уплачивали их «заявочную» цену) POOL Output Price: (POP) = Pool Input Price + Uplift Uplift represented the additional charges incurred to National Grid Company because of System Constraints Suppliers purchased Electricity at Pool Output Price (Поставщики закупают э/э на Пуле по цене производителя) Электрический пул System Constraints (Система давления):

23 Электрический пул: A Review Need for strong Regulatory Body to ensure prices were not fixed. Evidence suggested price manipulation took place in early years. Regulator required major generators to dispose of some stations. The lack of Demand Side Bidding was a weakness Charges for Transmission Losses were averaged over whole Network. Customers in North subsidise those in South Generators in South subsidise those in North These issues are still under discussion Separate discussions relating to Distribution Charges are also under way

24 Changes in Regional Electricity Companies in the 1990s Mergers Scottish Hydro & Southern become Scottish & Southern Take-over Scottish Power takes over MANWEB Vertical Integration nPower acquire Midlands PowerGen acquire East Midlands United Utilities formed –in NORWEB area PowerGen nPower United Utilities Scottish & Southern Scottish Power Scottish Power 1990 c. 1998

25 A brief review of the UK Electricity Industry prior to Краткий обзор состояния британской электроэнергетики перед приватизацией в 1990 г The Electricity Markets in the 1990s after Privatisation Рынки электроэнергии в 1990 г после приватизации The New Electricity Trading Arrangements Новая система оптовой торговли НЕТА The Supply of Electricity since 1990 Сбыт электроэнергии с 1990 Brief Review of the Regulator/Customer Protection/Metering The changing face of the Electricity Market in the UK

26 The New Electricity Trading Arrangements Новая система оптовой торговли НЕТА The changing face of the Electricity Market in the UK The basic principles Основные принципы Gate Closure and Final Physical Notification Закрытие периода и окончательная физическая нотификация The Balancing Mechanism Балансирующий механизм

27 The basic principles [ Основные принципы] Новая система оптовой торговли НЕТА How does it differ from the Pool? Both Generating and Demand Side Bidding Takes Place Most Electricity (>90%) is traded outside NETA Balancing Mechanism NETA favours generators and suppliers who can guarantee specific levels of generation/supply in advance. NETA favours generators and suppliers who can guarantee flexibility in output / demand at short notice.

28 The basic principles [ Основные принципы] Новая система оптовой торговли НЕТА How does it differ from the Pool? - continued Generators and Suppliers are penalised if they deviate from their agreed level of generation / supply. System security is maintained via the Balancing Mechanism [Балансирующий механизм] Renewable Generators e.g. Wind and small CHP (~10 MW) can be adversely affected.

29 The basic principles [ Основные принципы] Generation and Supply focuses on Новая система оптовой торговли НЕТА Balancing Mechanism [Балансирующий механизм] (BM) Units Generating BM Units may be a single generating set or a collection of small generating sets. Demand BM Units may be a single large demand consumer or a collection of small consumers. Trading can take place between Generating and Demand BM Units Only the volume traded ( not price) has to be notified.

30 The New Electricity Trading Arrangements Each Generating or Demand BM Unit notifies System Operator of the projected Volume of Electricity to be Traded for each half hour period by 11:00 on preceding day. Initial Physical Notification (IPN) System Operator checks sufficient capacity is available. Initially 3.5 hours before REAL Time - later reduced to 1 hour. Final agreed Volumes to be traded noted before Gate Closure. Final Physical Notification (FPN) окончательная физическая нотификация Gate Closure and Final Physical Notification Закрытие периода и окончательная физическая нотификация GATE CLOSURE : Закрытие периода

31 The Balancing Mechanism Балансирующий механизм Day Before Current Day IPNFPN Gate Closure Real Time 30 mins 3.5 hours 1 hour Operation of Balancing Mechanism Summary Changes to contract position cannot be made after Gate Closure The Balancing Mechanism is operated after Gate Closure to provide System Security

32 The Balancing Mechanism Балансирующий механизм The New Electricity Trading Arrangements Новая система оптовой торговли НЕТА To allow system to remain stable Too little electricity on the system – Generators can OFFER to INCREASE output – Suppliers can OFFER to REDUCE consumption Time FPN OFFER Time FPN OFFER If OFFER is agreed then Generators / Suppliers are PAID for any electricity increased / reduced under the OFFER.

33 The Balancing Mechanism Балансирующий механизм The New Electricity Trading Arrangements Новая система оптовой торговли НЕТА Too much electricity on the system – Generators can BID to REDUCE output – Suppliers can BID to INCREASE consumption If BID is agreed then Generators / Suppliers PAY for any reduction in generation / increase in demand under the BID. Time FPN OFFER Bid FPN OFFER Bid Time

34 The Balancing Mechanism Балансирующий механизм Generators / Suppliers may submit OFFERs or BIDs which differ for different levels of deviation from the Final Physical Notification National Grid Company normally accepts OFFERS / BIDS which are cheapest unless System Constraints prevent this MW: £30 per MWh (1.5 Roubles per kWh) MW: £50 per MWh (2.5 Roubles per kWh) MW: £20 per MWh (1 Rouble per kWh) FPN окончательная физическая нотификация Example of Differential Offers from a Generator

35 The Balancing Mechanism Балансирующий механизм What happens if System Operator has got it wrong? OFFERs / BIDs cannot be cancelled UNDO BID removes an OFFER and is usually less than the OFFER UNDO OFFER removes a BID and is usually more than the BID OFFERs / UNDO BIDs [ or BIDs / UNDO OFFERs] are submitted in pairs OFFER / UNDO BID: Pair +2 OFFER / UNDO BID: Pair +1BID / UNDO OFFER: Pair -1BID / UNDO OFFER: Pair -2 FPN

36 Новая система оптовой торговли НЕТА What happens if a Generator / Supplier is out of balance? Unexpected changes in Demand Equipment Failure Generator / Supplier has too much electricity on the system [too much generation / too little demand] * charged for imbalance at System Sell Price Generator / Supplier has too little electricity on the system [too little generation / too much demand] * charged for imbalance at System Buy Price Example from last February

37 Новая система оптовой торговли НЕТА How well has it performed since starting on 27th March 2001? In last 18 months wholesale prices have risen and are now higher than at start of NETA

38 Новая система оптовой торговли НЕТА How well has it performed since starting on 27th March 2001? From ELEXON Web Site: 3rd July

39 The changing face of the Electricity Market in the UK A brief review of the UK Electricity Industry prior to Краткий обзор состояния британской электроэнергетики перед приватизацией в 1990 г The Electricity Markets in the 1990s after Privatisation Рынки электроэнергии в 1990 г после приватизации The New Electricity Trading Arrangements Новая система оптовой торговли НЕТА The Supply of Electricity since 1990 Сбыт электроэнергии с 1990 Brief Review of the Regulator/Customer Protection/Metering

40 The Supply of Electricity since 1990 Сбыт электроэнергии с 1990 Large Consumers (> 1 MW) Крупные потребители Before privatisation: Could only purchase from the Local\Regional Electricity Company (REC) supplier in their region After privatisation Consumers > 1MW could purchase from ANY REC not just their own regional Company (second tier RECs). From 1994 Consumers > 100 kW were included in Deregulation

41 Domestic Consumers: Бытовые потребители (население) The Supply of Electricity since 1990 Сбыт электроэнергии с 1990 Domestic Consumers did not benefit from competition until September Prices to Domestic Consumers were regulated according to the formula: RPI - X + E + F Transition Arrangements to 1998 Договоры о переходном периоде на период до 1998 RPI is a measure of inflation X was a factor set by Regulator - initially ~ 5% but later reduced. E was an energy conservation factor whereby costs of such measures could be passed on to the consumer F was a levy designed to promote exploitation of Renewables

42 Domestic Consumers: Бытовые потребители (население) September June 1999 The Supply of Electricity since 1990 Сбыт электроэнергии с 1990 Regions of England and Wales were progressively Deregulated so that Domestic Consumers could purchase their electricity from any supplier. Implementation of Deregulation in stages: allowed any initial problems encountered to be sorted out. After Deregulation, the RPI - X + E + F formula no longer applied. To allow new suppliers to gain a foothold, the existing suppliers could not reduce their prices in their own area for a further transition period of a few years.

43 The unit charge to the consumer has three components. The actual unit charge as determined by the Supplier A distribution charge (payable to local REC as distributing company) which is same for all suppliers in a region A meter reading charge. The domestic consumer does not see these different component parts on their bills. Электрический пул: Supply Side Domestic Consumers: Бытовые потребители (население) Tariff Structure: Структура тарификации

44 Privatisation Deregulation NETA Effects of Privatisation and Deregulation on Energy Prices Deregulation in Domestic Market for Gas for Electricity Large Consumers (> 1 MW) Крупные потребители Domestic Consumers: Бытовые потребители (население) [Восточной Англии] 1998: 7.48p (3.74 Roubles) per kWh 2003: 5.62p (2.81 Roubles) per kWh 2004: 6.10p (3.05 Roubles) per kWk Privatisation NETA Source: Energy Sector Indicators: Department of Trade and Industry

45 Changes in Structure of Supplies Companies in last 4 years Electricité de France (EDF) acquire London and SEEBOARD Only in Scotland has their been no change in ownership PowerGen acquires Eastern (TXU) EDF acquire SWEB nPower acquires Yorkshire Scottish and Southern acquire SWALEC nPower acquire Northern PowerGen acquire NORWEB

46 Distributed Network Ownership Regional Supply Ownership Scottish & Southern Scottish Power United Utilities Mid American PowerGen Electricité de France Aquila Western Power Scottish & Southern Scottish Power nPower PowerGen Electricité de France Distributed Network Ownership in 2004

47 Since April 1st 2002, all suppliers must provide a minimum percentage of electricity from renewable sources. The percentage is set to increase each year to 10.4% by Compliance is indicated by Renewable Obligation Certificates. Failure to meet this requirement incurs a fine at the Buy-out price - initial 3p per kWh (1.5 Roubles per kWh) and rising in line with inflation - currently 3.129p per kWh. But-out fines are recycled to companies in proportion to ROCs they hold - thus trading is occuring in ROCs at a surcharge price as high as 4.8p per kWh (2.4 Roubles). Domestic prices are set to rise slightly because of this Renewable Obligation. Электрический пул: Supply Side Impact on Suppliers of Renewables Obligation Certificates (ROCs) Воздействие Сертификатов обязательства по использованию возобновляемых источников

48 The changing face of the Electricity Market in the UK A brief review of the UK Electricity Industry prior to Краткий обзор состояния британской электроэнергетики перед приватизацией в 1990 г The Electricity Markets in the 1990s after Privatisation Рынки электроэнергии в 1990 г после приватизации The New Electricity Trading Arrangements Новая система оптовой торговли НЕТА The Supply of Electricity since 1990 Сбыт электроэнергии с 1990 Brief Review of the Regulator/ Customer Protection/ Metering

49 History of Regulation 1986 British Gas privatised : OFGAS Regulator 1989 Electricity industry privatised: OFFER Regulator May 1998 Domestic gas market fully open to competition May 1999 Domestic electricity market fully open to competition June 1999 OFGEM formed October 1999 Introduction of new gas trading arrangements to the wholesale gas markets 2000 Utilities Act: EnergyWatch established March 2001 NETA introduced for wholesale electricity April 2002: Renewables Obligation 2002 Domestic price controls lifted April 2005: BETTA introduced for whole of UK.

50 OFGEM controls the prices charged by National Grid (Transco) and the Distribution Companies These are natural monopolies. Transmission and distribution make up around per cent of the average domestic bill. BUT OFGEM also has a duty to ensure the companies can finance investment needed to rewire Britain. Rewiring is necessary with increased use of Renewables. The Regulator

51 Energywatch: set up by the Utilities Act (2000). Funded by Department of Trade and Industry Funding comes from the licence fee paid by all energy companies It looks after consumers interests and deals with complaints Energywatch is accountable to the DTI. Energywatch is separate from OFGEM. Two organisations work closely together. Relationship with OFGEM is set out in a Memorandum of Understanding. Consumer Protection

52 Energywatch: Some key projects currently underway by Energywatch: Dealing with Rogue Traders who try to get people to switch suppliers Dealing with late and inaccurate bills In 2002/2003 Energywatch had 45,546 account, billing and other complaints (up from 37,075)* 34,027 transfer complaints (up from 30,743)* 12,960 direct selling complaints (up from 6,991)* Consumer Protection

53 Metering Specialist Metering Companies have entered market since Siemens Energy Services is now the largest independent supplier of metering services. It reads gas and electricity meters throughout the UK Processes customer data and handles the payment of bills. Siemens covers nearly 8 million households (around one-third) It provides a metering service for British Gas, Powergen, npower, Scottish Power, Scottish & Southern Energy.

54 Provision of Comparison Services

55 Conclusions (1) Key Changes in Electricity Market in UK April 1st 1990: Privatisation: Electricity POOL Established Large Consumers benefit from Deregulation 1994: Intermediate Consumers benefit from Deregulation All Consumers benefit from Deregulation 27th March 2001: NETA replaced POOL 1st April 2002: Renewable Obligation comes into force The POOL and NETA were not used in Scotland The Future BETTA (British Electricity Transmission and Trading Arrangements). It is planned to extend NETA to include Scotland in April 2005 (recently put back from October 2004)

56 Conclusions (2) Key Changes in Electricity Market in UK Prices to consumers have fallen as a result of Deregulation (up to 20% in some cases) Wholesale prices of Electricity have fallen by 40% over last 4 years, and 20% since introduction of NETA Prices to consumers have changed little since introduction of NETA - to early to see full effect as prices by Suppliers only tend to change once a year or so. Most electricity >> 90% is traded outside Balancing Mechanism Trading NETA favours Generators / Suppliers who can guarantee output / supply in advance NETA favours Generators / Suppliers who can be flexible to make adjustments during Balancing Mechanism Trading.

57 Conclusions (3) There is a need for A strong Regulator with Powers to curtail malpractice A Consumer Watchdog to deal with Complaints etc. New companies are emerging in the market Metering Companies Distribution only Companies Significant changes in structure Mergers / Demergers Vertical Integration / Splitting of functions

58 The changing face of the Electricity Market in the UK Изменяющееся лицо рынка электроэнергии в Британии Some Useful WEB Sites : Up to date information of NETA Market : The UK Regulator : Documents and Modifications to NETA : The System Operator : Energy Watch www2.env.uea.ac.uk/gmmc/energy/enpoint.htm the Energy Web Page at UEA giving links to many Energy Web Sites in UK and overseas. This presentation is available over Internet at www2.env.uea.ac.uk/gmmc/neta/NETA.htm

59 Н.К.Тови М.А., д-р технических наук Факультет экологических исследований Университета Восточной Англии School of Environmental Sciences University of East Anglia Norwich NR4 7TJ Energy Science Director Low Carbon Innovation Centre


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