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MANAGING 21 ST C AIR QUALITY. l Mining l Waste transfer stations – especially PM 10 in UK DISPERSIVE PROCESSES.

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Presentation on theme: "MANAGING 21 ST C AIR QUALITY. l Mining l Waste transfer stations – especially PM 10 in UK DISPERSIVE PROCESSES."— Presentation transcript:

1 MANAGING 21 ST C AIR QUALITY

2 l Mining l Waste transfer stations – especially PM 10 in UK DISPERSIVE PROCESSES

3 l Demolition l Vehicle Wear: Cu, Zn, Cd, Sb, Ba, Pb l Brakes pads Cu, Ba, Sb DISPERSIVE PROCESSES

4 AGRICULTURE l Dispersive sources Ploughing Pesticides Pollen dispersal

5 DISPERSIVE PROCESSES ORGANICSORGANIC ACIDS NEUTRALIZATION HNO 3 H 2 SO 4 DUST EMISSION Mining, agriculture, construction, roads OXIDATION

6 A SENSE OF FAILURE l Re-authorization of CAA(1970) in 1990s Recognised a failure to meet O 3 standards Noted HC down 30% NO x down 50% l UK things were not getting better- titration l Secondary pollution had detached pollutants from there sources l Seemingly illogical…

7 OK EXCEPT FOR 2 ND POLLUTION OK EXCEPT FOR 2 ND POLLUTION EPA ambient air quality trends

8 RETHINK 96/62/EC l Human health l Public information Alert l Zones and agglomerations l Technical and scientific support Working groups and position papers l Methods Indicative CBA l Daughter Directives and position papers SO 2 NO 2 PM Pb O 3 benzene CO PAH Cd As Ni Hg 1,3butadiene HF not included!

9 CLEAN AIR for EUROPE (CAFE) beyond 96/62/EC l Follows 96/62/EC but in CAFE - a preoccupation with O 3 /PM l Concern with environment and not just health l Synergisms - not pollutant by pollutant approach l Indoor issues – only where it relates to outdoor pollutants

10 Atkinson Grimshaw Glasgow Docks

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12 Yoshio Markino - The Painter of Fog YELLOW FOGS l Scattering l Tar in droplets l Gaslight

13 COLOUR OF SMOG l Scattering… l NO 2 brown l London fog

14 SOMETIMES OUTCOMES NOT OBVIOUS In some places the air has become worse in the weekends NO + O 3 NO 2 + O 2

15 POPs WOOD SMOKEVOCs, O3 COAL SMOKE DIESEL SMOKE LEADH2SSMELLs TIME DOMINANCE of the AUTOMOBILE 2 O PHOTOCHEMICAL POLLUTION CARCINOGENS NEUROTOXIN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR TERATOGEN

16 MEXICO CITY STUART FRANKLIN

17 SEPTEMBER 1986 FUEL CHANGE

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20 ROLE OF AUTOMOTIVE VAPOURS CH 4 + OH CH 3 + H 2 O CH 3 + O 2 CH 3 O 2 CH 3 O 2 + NO CH 3 O + NO 2 CH 3 O + O 2 HCHO + HO 2 HO 2 + NO OH + NO 2 CH 4 + 2O 2 + 2NO HCHO + 2NO 2 + H 2 O …initially scientists thought that the effectiveness of the organic compound would be related to its rate of reaction with OH

21 PHOTOCHEMICAL OZONE CREATION POTENTIAL (POCP) l However OH reactivity did not capture branching …..where a molecule spilt into two l Ethene (ethylene) typifies this process… CH 2 =CH 2 + O 3 CH 2 O 2 * + HCHO l Can at times be a hundred fold more reactive than simple organic compounds

22 POCP OF AROMATICS BENZENE AND TOLUENE l Benzene and toluene have many double bonds l High POCP l Antiknock additives l Can lead to an effective lachrymator, peroxybenzoylnitrate (PBzN) an aromatic PAN: C 6 H 5 C(O)OONO 2 l Mexico city and aromatics CH 3

23 WINTER NO X SMOGS l Termolecular oxidation l Titration NO+O 3

24 WINTER POLLUTION PROBLEMS l Low temperatures favour nitrogen dioxide formation l Cold start gives high carbon monoxide l Stable air masses l Tyre dust

25 EMISSION CONTROL Emissions Pollution CONCERN …less applicable in an age of secondary pollutants

26 PRIMARY CONTROL SPORTING EVENTS l Beijing 2008 Olympic Games l Kaohsiung 2009 World Games l London 2012

27 AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT Emission inventory Lower Pollution POLICY CONCERN Computer model Meteorological measurement Monitoring network Air quality standards/goals Devise tactics to meet standards Enforce emissions Elsom (1992) Disagreement Political wrangle Economic impact Siting issues Models! Distrust Perceptions

28 AQM OR EMISSION CONTROL l AQM complex l Control principles l Other methods –financial instruments Emission trading, permits, fees, fuel tax CBA

29 ADVANTAGES l Can control secondary pollutants l Is focused on the heath based issues l Can be flexible in terms of socio-economic strategies

30 EPAQS & COMEAP l Links between DoH and Air Quality Division

31 AIR QUALITY MANAGEMENT Emission inventory Lower Pollution Computer model Meteorological measurement Monitoring network Air quality standards/goals Devise tactics to meet standards Enforce emissions

32 COMPLIANCE – Stationary Sources ROLLBACK AND BEYOND l Clean Fuels l Reduce fuels use – efficiency, better plant l Certification l Zoning l Architectural coatings

33 COMPLIANCE - Automobiles ROLLBACK AND BEYOND l Reduce total emissions Speed, pooling, public transport, urban planning l Reduce vehicle emissions Cleaner engines, fuels catalytic converters l Maintenance and inspection certification

34 EUROPEAN CONTROLS l Ever tightening regulations as part of a recognition of the role of motor vehicles

35 DIESEL PRIMARY NO 2 l EURO III diesel cars have oxidation catalysis and particle traps l This now means the emission ratio for NO 2 /NO x is 50% rather than 5% in the past…

36 METHANOL l potential alternative to a hydrogen economy l production via syngas from natural gas l CH 4 + H 2 O CO + 3H 2 nickel catalyst 850°C l CO + 2H 2 CH 3 OH copper, zinc oxide, and alumina @5–10 MPa and 250 °C l good motor fuel

37 METHANOL MODELLING IMPACT IN A LARGE CITY l Peak 1h ozone likely to change little l More general O 3 improvements though… l PAN reduced l Increased peak HCHO, but average does not change much l Toxicological problems

38 LEZ l EURO3 l PM l 2012 Minibus

39 BIOFUELS l The European Union biofuels directive: 2010 at least 5.75% biofuel usage for traffic fuel. 2020 10 % Backed down 2008 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/7186380.stm l George W. Bush 2006 State of the Union speech: US to replace 75% of the oil it imports from the Middle East by biofuels by 2025 Bush and Lula (Brazil) on Biofuel 9 Mar 07

40 SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL l Recognising that the organic material formed in the smog was important l Oxidized compounds, but necessarily non volatile – e.g. dicarboxylic acids

41 DIESEL PARTICLES l Increasing concern about very fine particles black diesel vehicles l Nitration of organics l Carcinogens

42 Los Angeles ULTRAFINES (50-100nm) Most abundant catalytic metals: Fe, Ti, Cr, Zn, Ce Cass et al Phil. Trans. 2000 Some 10% of primary organic particles seem to be from cars...

43 PERSISTENT ORGANIC POLLUTANTS (POPS) 4) toxaphene 5) Aldrin 6) Chlordane 7) DDT 8) Dieldrin 9) endrin, 10) heptachlor 11) Hexachlorobenzene 12) mirex 1) polychlorinated biphenyls 2) polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins 3) polychlorinated dibenzofurans UNEP short list of 12 Compounds resistant to environmental degradation


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