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FROM BATTERSEA TO THE CLEAN AIR ACTS. TRANSITION TO ELECTRIC POWER LOCAL INDUSTRY Wolverhampton.

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Presentation on theme: "FROM BATTERSEA TO THE CLEAN AIR ACTS. TRANSITION TO ELECTRIC POWER LOCAL INDUSTRY Wolverhampton."— Presentation transcript:

1 FROM BATTERSEA TO THE CLEAN AIR ACTS

2 TRANSITION TO ELECTRIC POWER LOCAL INDUSTRY Wolverhampton

3 Barton A 1923 (Manchester Corporation) l Electric Lighting Act 1888/1909 Reduced restrictions and LAs as generators l Electricity (Supply) Act 1926 National grid l Barton A scorching hedges and fruit trees

4 Barton A 1923 (Manchester Corporation) l l Manchester Corporation Electricity generation gave smoke but their duties arose under the Man. Corp. Act 1914 l l House of Lords (1929/1930) Overturned decision: cannot rely on statutory powers to excuse a nuisance l l Shock! A decision of great moment

5 BATTERSEA A l London Power Company used 1926 Act l Consent given in 1927 l Shock!

6 POLLUTION WORRY FROM OUTSET l Could attach conditions (1927) l Chimney heights l Gas washing l Not practical to revoke consent This will kill every green thing within two miles of Battersea, rot all the buildings and bleach all the babies. G. Fry Prime Ministers personal secretary

7 HEADLINES 1929 l FAILURE TO FORSEE l A DEPLORABLE STEP l SULPHUR CLOUD l BUILDING IN SPITE OF PROTEST l SUNLIGHT AND SMOKE l OUTPOURINGS OF GREAT CHIMNEYS l BATTERSEAS FOLLY l ALARM l THE SITE l GAS WASHING l FUMES MENACE l NOXIOUS GAS l FUME STATION

8 BUILDING IN SPITE OF PROTEST l Steel-framed building with brickwork hung from the outside, similar to US skyscrapers l Construction l Station B l Four-chimney layout

9 HEADLINES 1934 l POWER l SMOKE WITHOUT FUMES l A RIVERSIDE NOCTURNE l BIGGEST POWER STATION IN THE WORLD l THE GIANT ROBOT OF BATTERSEA l POWER l INDUSTRYS SMOKE BECOMES BEAUTIFUL

10 OVERCOMING PROTEST the building was too large and would be an eyesore, and those who were worried about the pollution. Ignoring the latter, the company addressed the former by hiring Sir Giles Gilbert Scott Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

11 COMPLAINTS GRAPH PLANNING STAGE WW2 CONSTRCTION AND SMOKE ABATEMENT STUDIES CLOSURE

12 WARTIME a clear landmark for the bombers of the Luftwaffe

13 TEMPLE OF POWER l Art Deco control room l Italian marble turbine hall l Polished parquet floors l Wrought iron staircases l Fluted white smoke stacks l Turbine Hall as nave Architects Journal 1939 celebrities vote it their 2nd favourite building

14 PHOTOGRAPHIC COMPETITION

15 SYMBOL OF PRIDE and MODERNTY BIGGEST POWER STATION IN THE WORLD THE GIANT ROBOT OF BATTERSEA

16 STATION B l 1952 fog l Scrubbing success/failure

17 PAINTED

18 PHOTOGRAPHED

19 ICONIC STATUS Pink Floyd Animals 1977 Songbook Album cover

20 The Who Quadrophenia (1973) Hitomi Yaida The First Reflection (2001) Also: The Orb's Adventures Beyond The Ultraworld and Les Claypool's Frog Brigade's Live Frogs

21 ICONIC STATUS Sir Ian McKellen 1995 film version of Richard III used the Battersea PS as a backdrop …also Alfred Hitchcock Sabotage (1936) Monty Python's The Meaning Of Life

22 CLOSURE l 1975 Station A (out of date) was shut down l Public pressure to save the buildings, notably Station A's Deco interior. l 1980 declared a heritage site l 1983 production in Station B ended l Plans to construct a theme park in 1988 folded

23 SYMBOL OF COMMUNITY

24 DECOMMISIONING AND DESTRUCTION Battersea Power Station has been standing mute defying that fate and death… its rebirth and the removal of a major central London area of blight … would re-energise this part of town

25 MORE PLANS (2004) l 24-hour destination- cinema, bars, cafes and shops l 750 new flats l twisted like ribbon building to create a "spectacular portal to the site"

26 IRONY l Inversion of protest l The grid and relocation l The loss of urban power-stations

27 THE IMPORTANCE OF THE LONDON SMOG OF 1952 g m -3 December air pollution at County Hall

28 WEEKLY DEATH RATE IN LONDON ADMINISTRATIVE COUNTY 1952 SMOG WEEK

29 MECHANISMS OF FOG FORMATION Classically related to sulfuric acid formation HSO ½O 2 SO 4 = + H + catalysed by dissolved iron neutralised by calcium New work considers humic like polycarboxylic acids hygroscopic surface active Yousef Otaibi Talib Latif UEA

30 GREAT SMOG and PUBLIC IMAGES l Cancelled buses, football l Animals suffering l Lost on the way home

31 CRIMINALS IN THE 52 SMOG Tiger in the Smoke (1952) Lady in the Fog (1952) Newspapers incorrectly reported increased crime…

32 KRAY BROTHERS Grateful for the fogs spent the early 1950's dodging the Army Normally crime increased in fogs, … but in 1952 the Great Smog rendered London virtually crime free David Bailey

33 OUTCOME as everyone knows... l Beaver Committee Private Members Bill ( Nabarro ) l Clean Air Act (1956) l How many died? l What was the role of SO 2 ? but...

34 FACTS-FACTIONS-FICTIONS l MacMillan (Housing) l Gasmasks l Mass Graves l Delayed response Conspiracy and cover up- ? driven by fading social memory?

35 CONCEALING THE DEATHS l Contemporary analysis was fairly immediate…but l Influenza and longer term impacts

36 FACTS-FACTIONS-FICTIONS l Deaths l Battersea Re-analysis… can be problematical

37 CLEAN AIR ACT (1956) SUCCESS OR FAILURE l Need historic measurements

38 EARLY MEASUREMENTS

39 Day/annum g m LONDON FOG and AIR POLLUTION

40 INNOVATION and IMAGINATION l What was wrong with the smoke clauses of the Public Health Act (1936 )? l Challenges personal freedom by controlling what people could burn in their own homes "chimney of any building..."

41 STRUCTURE OF THE ACT l Many clauses PHA (1936) 6 CAA (1956) > 40 l Detail in memoranda chimney heights smoke control areas industrial premises Compare with EC/96/62 Air Quality Monitoring and Management Directive

42 DOUBTS l Not enough smokeless fuel...

43 CLEAN AIR ACT (1956) SUCCESS OR FAILURE l Domestic transitions l Smokeless fuels l Slow uptake of smokeless zones in some areas l Failure to address SO 2 l Declining smoke and SO 2 – even outside smokeless zones

44 IMPACT OF CAA(1956) l Regulated smoke not SO 2 l Applied in Black areas l Implementaton often delayed

45 CAA(1956) AFFECTS OUR CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENT l Personal freedom and the automobile congestion charges public transport will never cope… buses make pollution worse school runs - less than one in 10 parents believe public transport can get their children to school l l Bonfires in gardens l l Regulation of indoor spaces and furnishings

46 l The world and London has changed – PM, winter NO 2, summer ozone l CAA(1956) incorporated into CAA(1993) l Iconic status CHANGE IN LONDON

47 THE BIG SMOKE AND LONDON I desired to know what brought him so far from the big smoke The Cruise of the Cachalot Cleaning up the Big Smoke: Livingstone plans to cut carbon emissions by 60% · Londoners given 20-year target to go green · Flights could drastically affect success of campaign The Guardian, February


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