Presentation on theme: "THE HISTORY OF AIR POLLUTION ANCIENT TO VICTORIAN TIMES"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE HISTORY OF AIR POLLUTION ANCIENT TO VICTORIAN TIMES
2 SUMERIAN/BABYLONIAN ATTITUDES TOWARDS SMOKE my mood and heart. As if during the night watch……like excrement.…… my countenance like smoke.A hymn to Inana for Išme-Dagan: cDon't cause the oven in a man's house to smoke… it will ruin the bread.Proverbs: from Nibru: c.6.2.1Temple of Inana
3 RELIGIOUS CONTEXTSTypically religions see a relation between cleanliness and closeless to GodHence pollution and defilement often linked…Mary Douglas: Purity and Danger - an analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo (1966)
4 VICTORY STELA OF KING PIANKHI “Ur was a stench to the nose for lack of air to breathe and threw itself on its belly…”Seige of Hermopolis734 BCTEXT
5 ASTYMOMOIIn Aristotle’s Athenian Politics - duties of the astymomoi who are responsible among other things for rubbish to be deposited beyond city walls
6 RECORDED FREQUENCY Koryosa China 1150BC Korea 174AD Young-Sin Chun KMA The histogram shows the three Korean periods: The first Samguk Sidae [Three Kingdoms] actually runs from BC and is reported in Samguksaki. The Koryo Sidae runs and is in Koryosa shown in red. The characters WuTo can be tranlated as “raining soil”. The last period Chosun Sidae( ) has many excellent observations in the early period, but bad economic conditions as a part of invasions hampered records. Painting is “small structure on blue river…”936-13921392-1910Byun, Kwan Shik(1939) Nu Gak...Young-Sin Chun KMA
7 AIR AND HEALTH The Hippocratic Corpus had linked air and health Vitruvius on Architecture sought the proper location of dwellingsSeneca and culinary odours
8 LEGISLATING THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT Sextus Julius Frontinus (Curator Aquarum)Governor of Britain ~AD75-78Improved Rome's water improved the air (miasmatic theory)Rise of the professional administratorMoving industry (glass making) to suburbs“Infamis aer…”“Gravioris caeli…”Frontinus The Aqueducts of Rome
9 SMOKE LIKE WATER Urban servitudes Roman nuisance law treated neighbourly behaviourSmoke often treated like water… you could no more let water drain across a house than smoke
10 BLACKENNED BUILDINGSYour fathers' guilt you still must pay, Till, Roman, you restore each shrine, Each temple, mouldering in decay, And smoke-grimed statue, scarce divineOdes and Carmen SaeculareHorace
11 MIDDLE EAST “You can't take a wife out of the village to a city…” Arab inheritance of classical learning meant an understanding of focus air pollution and health by 10th C.Hebrew Bava Batra and Ktubot describe laws:“You can't take a wife out of the village to a city…”Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi (“Rashi” ) says this is “because the city is crowded and has no air.... In the village the air is nice"
12 At-Tamĭmi ( )The black storm which is located in Hijaz and surroundings – is the smoky vapour which asphyxiates and kills
13 MEDIEVAL ENGLAND Fuedal society at its height in 13th century London an active capitalFast developing law under Edward IEdward I
14 AIR POLLUTION INCIDENTS BIG CHANGE LATE 13TH CRoyal proclamations in 1285, 1288, 1306
15 FUEL FOR MAKING CEMENTBuilding at Westminster 1253 Henry III ordered oak brushwoodHenry IIIOrder of 23 July 1264 “purvey for the King in London… a boat load of sea-coal”
20 Braun and HogenbergCivitates Orbis Terrarum (1572) from woodcut Sebastian Munster (1550)
21 INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION in ASIA Use of coal relatively late, so sulphur emissions comparatively low.Nevertheless early complaints of pollution, e.g 18th C breweries in BangkokHiroshige: Lime kilnsat Hashiba Ferry, Sumida RiverOne Hundred Famous Views of Edo
22 YORK 1381 Poll Tax establishes industrial locations Dyers BakersTanners ButchersMetal workersPoll Tax establishes industrial locationsAnnual wood use to calculate smoke concentrationsChandlers Glaziers, Tilers4 ug/m3FOSSOUSE
25 William LAUDLosing you head over air pollutantsboring or brewing
26 Sir Kenelme DIGBY - errant mountebank “Coal hath… volatile salt very sharp…” dissapated to atoms in smokeA Discourse on Sympathetic Powder 1658Acid atomsAlkaliatomsJohn Beal was driven giddy by Digby’s corpuscularian philosophyEvelyn called him an errant mountebank.Van Dyck
27 Margaret CAVENDISH - the ornament of England “Why that a coale should set a house on fire Is, Atomes sharpe are in that coale entire Being strong armed with Points, do quite pierce through; Those flat dull Atoms, and their forms undo.” Poems and Fancies 1653fashion victim, dreamer and anti Baconian...Her personal excess was legendary… men and women lined the streets of London to catch a glimpse of her.
28 John EVELYN Diarist, gardener and environmentalist Fumifugium 1661 Robert Walker 1648Diarist, gardener and environmentalistFumifugium 1661Many schemes to improve London and its air
29 Ballad of Gresham College 22.To guesse by one everyone's meritt, A Booke call'd Fumifugiam read. Its Author hath a publique spirit And doubtlesse too a subtile head He must be more than John an Oake Who writes soe learnedly of smoake.23.He shewes that 't is the seacoale smoake That allways London doth Inviron, Which doth our Lungs and Spiritts choake, Our hanging spoyle, and rust our Iron. Lett none att Fumifuge be scoffing Who heard att Church our Sundaye's Coughing.24.For melioration of the Ayre Both for our Lungs and eke our noses, To plant the Fields he doth take care With Cedar, Juniper and Roses, Which, turn'd to trees, 't is understood, Wee shall instead of coale burne wood.
30 DEATH by FOG The winter of 1679 Deaths very high after weeks of fog Weekly observationsDEATH by FOGThe winter of 1679Deaths very high afterweeks of fogEspecially from tisick and among elderlyJohn Graunt, Natural and Political Observations Made Upon the Bills of Mortality, London: 1662
32 RAINWATER AND PUBLIC HEALTH Robert Angus Smiththe first Alkali Inspectorformer student of Liebignetwork of rain sampling sites across the UK (1869/70)“The purpose of rain is primarily to purify the air and not to fertilize the soil”
33 URBAN POLLUTIONR.A.Smith placed tin cans on fire-stations in London – used term “acid rain”
34 WHY HISTORY?Film companiesArt history – labelling paintings
35 COLONIAL AMBITIONSPigeon-post linking Auckland and Great Barrier Island choose to emphasise urban-industrial not rural aspirations.Victorians associated smoke and wealth.JCW Wright 1897NZ Public Works Dept
36 AUCKLAND Auckland, isthmus with sea breezes Shallow harbours - emissions from mudflats gave odour problems or fume attacks1840's problems from putrefying waste in the Port of AucklandPJ Hogan 1852 Auckland No 2
37 CALCUTTA - problems from the 18th C NICHOLSONVISITVictorian experts Grover and Nicholson went and pushed for stringent smoke inspectionSome measure of successsmoke observation are not always reliable
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