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INDOOR AIR POLLUTION SOURCES AND POLICY Peter Brimblecombe University of East Anglia Norwich UK.

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Presentation on theme: "INDOOR AIR POLLUTION SOURCES AND POLICY Peter Brimblecombe University of East Anglia Norwich UK."— Presentation transcript:

1 INDOOR AIR POLLUTION SOURCES AND POLICY Peter Brimblecombe University of East Anglia Norwich UK

2 A RECENT SCIENCE l There is much confusion in the literature as to whether this is a recent process or not… l The problem is ancient - weapons of Odysseus l Concern is long term e.g. smoky fireplaces l Scientific study recent

3 SINUSITIS Common in Saxon times Often related to lack of chimneys

4 Scopulariopsis Brevicaulis metabolises arsenic to the volatile trimethylarsine (CH 3 ) 3 As Scheeles Green INDOOR AIR POLLUTANTS l l Bioemmisions (MVOCs)

5 INDOOR AIR POLLUTION l Historically very important l Increasing time in indoor environment l Sensitive populations indoors: elderly, young and ill l Monitors outside! l Lower ventilation rates - energy savings l Novel building materials - outgas …also poverty and gender issues

6 FORMALDEHYDE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS DISCIPLINARY TRENDS

7 VULNERABLE GROUPS INDOORS POVERTY AND GENDER ISSUES l Coal PM10 250 g m -3 CO 42 ppm SO 2 192 ppb Women and children exposed in kitchen Poor people experience higher pollution indoors Kerosene and gas less mutagenic PAH... Heated interiors- La Pintana, Santiago l Firewood PM10 489 g m -3 CO 57 ppm SO 2 295 ppb

8 AGE ISSUES l Social change – young people on holiday – old people in city l Little community or health support l Poor knowledge l Home is safe Smogn Paris (& 400 000 morts prématurées en Europe, chaque année) Climate change and increasing ozone? PARIS OZONE AND HEATWAVE 2003

9 INTERIORS l Ethanol 590ppb - beverages, baking l Acetone 24ppb - smoking, metabolism l Toluene 18ppb - smoking, fuel l Formaldehyde 7ppb - smoking, cleaning l Acetic acid 6ppb - meals, cleaning l Nicotine 2ppb - smoking l Organochlorines - showers

10 l Mineral fibres l Micro-organisms l Legionella l Radon

11 DOMESTIC POLLUTANTS l Outdoor pollutants l Combustion products heating exciting cooking capsaicin oil Frying pan fumes - kill canaries? polytetrafluoroethylene pyrolyses to polyfluoro- and/or polychlorofluoro- (C3-C14) carboxylic acids Case of the Teflon- intoxicated Red-tailed Black Cockatoo

12 FRAGRANCES and TOILETRIES l Nitro-musks l Talc l Terpenes Polycyclic musks 134678hexahydr0-466788hexamethyl cyclopenta(g)-2-benzopyran More in Iowa City air than pesticides

13 PARTICLES IN THE PARIS METRO S. Mazoue et al (2001) … role of iron wheels, rails and brakes and Fe may be 280 g m -3 (80%) g m -3

14 AIRCRAFT CABINS (A310/A340) l Much complaint about re-circulation l Tourist class syndromes l No increase in particles in recirculated air l Increase in bacteria, but non-pathogenic l VOCs OK. Ethanol highest! l Ground engine exhaust/fuel l Smoking

15 POLLUTANTS INDOORS Nitrogen dioxide penetration at the Dreadnought Collection NO 2 ppb

16 INDOOR OUTDOOR RATIOS l Very unifying concept that compares interiors l >1 indoor source l <1 indoor loss mechanisms O 3 and SO 2 very effective loss

17 NO 2 INDOOR:OUTDOOR RATIOS l Museum of London 0.18 a/c & filtration l Correr (winter) 0.43 closed windows l Residenz, Wurzburg 0.62 l Kunsthistorisches Museum 0.64 l Correr (summer) 0.75 open windows l SCVA (winter) 0.79 l V&A, London 0.99 l SCVA (summer) 1.32 I/O = Ac/(Vd(S/V)+Ac)

18 INDOOR OUTDOOR RATIOS l Very unifying concept that compares interiors l >1 indoor source l <1 indoor loss mechanisms O 3 and SO 2 very effective loss

19 INDOOR AIR CHEMISTRY Indoor reactions can elevate summer NO 2 concentrations DG XII ENV4-CT95- 0088 Sainsbury Centre for Visual Arts SYNERGISMS AER project studied air chemistry in museum environments

20 INDOOR/OUTDOOR NO 2 HIGH AIR FLOW 3.0 changes/hour 0.79 winter 1.32 summer-autumn

21 SECONDARY EMISSIONS l NO 2 with surfaces l O 3 reaction fabrics NO 2 HONO pH dependent RAYCHAUDHURI M and BOWDEN D UEA O3O3 Org-O

22 OZONE REACTIONS WITH SURFACES l Paints formaldehyde l Carpets and counter tops a range of aldehydes, especially nonanal

23 AIR CONDITIONING EMISSIONS These reflect uptake and emissions Dominance of some characteristic aldehydes… hexanal nonanal Hyttinen et al Atmos Env 2006

24 SYMPTOMS AND REACTIONS l Concentrations of VOCs typically too low to explain SBS l Reactions l Dependency Production of PM-10 from fragrances

25 CAFE l may abandon the pollutant by pollutant approach… l preoccupied with ozone and particles l problems with indoor sources How do you regulate such heterogeneous interiors?

26 INDOOR CHALLENGES l Heterogeneity and monitoring l Often indoor air not same governmental agency as outdoor air Department of Health or Housing or Safety or Industry or even Cultural Heritage l Sub-critical concentrations l Sick building syndrome - sociological context l Personal freedom and it seems an environment we can control….

27 DEPOSITION VELOCITY [V d ] l Fundamental parameter to describe indoor removal rate... V d = (1/V a + 1/V s ) -1 1/V a aerodynamic resistance 1/V s surface resistance Note resistance is the reciprocal of velocity...

28 FORMALDEHYDE IN JAPANESE HOMES l Gamma distribution Park et al Indoor Air 2004


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