Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

THE URBAN ATMOSPHERE OF THE 21 ST CENTURY. INHERITANCE FROM 20 TH CENTURY l Liquid fuel – secondary pollution – photochemistry – inversion l Yet traditional.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "THE URBAN ATMOSPHERE OF THE 21 ST CENTURY. INHERITANCE FROM 20 TH CENTURY l Liquid fuel – secondary pollution – photochemistry – inversion l Yet traditional."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE URBAN ATMOSPHERE OF THE 21 ST CENTURY

2 INHERITANCE FROM 20 TH CENTURY l Liquid fuel – secondary pollution – photochemistry – inversion l Yet traditional problems such as odour remain

3 POPs WOOD SMOKEVOCs, O3 COAL SMOKE DIESEL SMOKE LEADH2SSMELLs TIME DOMINANCE of the AUTOMOBILE 2 O PHOTOCHEMICAL POLLUTION CARCINOGENS NEUROTOXIN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR TERATOGEN

4 OK EXCEPT FOR 2 ND POLLUTION OK EXCEPT FOR 2 ND POLLUTION EPA ambient air quality trends

5 UK: QUALITY OF URBAN AIR REVIEW GROUP (QUARG) l Review groups and their context l Networks and public communication l Preparation for EC directives

6 SMOG OF 1991 l 12th to the 15th of December 1991 l estimated that smog caused around 160 more deaths than normal l Cardiovascular (up 14%) and respiratory (up 22%) deaths increased l Schwartz and Dockery

7 QUARG and OUTPUT l Reports focus on particulate matter (especially PM 10 and PM 2.5 and diesel

8 KUZNETS CURVE l The environmental Kuznets curve relationship between indicators of environmental degradation income per capita Simon Kuznets' hypothesis- as a country develops, there is a natural cycle of economic inequality driven by market forces which at first increases inequality, and then decreases

9 KUZNETS RELATIONSHIP l Inverted U-shape curves of pollutants over time seen as economically driven l Pollutant concentrations in London follow a Kuznets curve l Such curves particularly evident for pollutants creating localised problems that offer local benefits via regulation. INCOME PER CAPITA INEQUALITY INDUSTRIALIZATION POLLUTION BRIMBLECOMBE & GROSSI Millennium-long damage to building materials in London, Science of the Total Environment 407, 1354 (2009).

10 NZ RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS l Regulations of 2004 as allowed under Resource Management Act 1991 (RMA) l Note it is about management and quote Elsom on Air Quality Management Clean Air and Environmental Quality, Volume 38, 1. (2004 ) http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/rma/user-guide-draft-oct05/html/page3.html

11 NZ RESOURCE MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS l Regional council plans determine paths to comply with the fine particle standard by 1 September 2013 http://www.mfe.govt.nz/publications/rma/user-guide-draft-oct05/html/page3.html

12 REGULATION OF PM l Confusion over mechanisms and measurement l regulation of size not effects l Regulatory problems: uncertainty no-thresholds l Constitutional dilemmas TSP PM 10 PM 2.5

13 PROBLEMS WITH STANDARDS l Meeting limit values may not always reduce exposure most effectively CONCENTRATION LIMITVALUE Fails to meet limit value, but much reduced cumulative does CURRENT Meets limit value

14 PREVENTION OF SIGNIFICANT DETRIMENT (PSD): embodied in CAA(1977) Sierra Club challenged EPA approval that allowed air quality degradation in areas having air quality better than the national ambient air quality standards. Sierra Club v. Ruckelshaus (1972) Giant Forest in Sequoia National Park http://www.nps.gov/archive/seki/snrm/air/visibility.htm

15 $$$$PARIS OZONE AND HEATWAVE 2003 Smogn Paris (& 400 000 morts prématurées en Europe, chaque année) Climate change and increasing ozone?

16 OZONE TREND l Daily max 8 hour ozone Bridge Place London then Westminster – μg/m 3 1990 2000 2008 l l Longer term issues – temperature and sunlight may increase ozone, but precursors may decline

17 INTERGRATED EXPOSURE TO SUMMER OZONE l AOT40 for forests in England (Harwell, Aston Hill and Ladybower) l April-September daytime ozone over threshold of 40 ppb

18 AIR POLLUTION AND FREEDOMS l Mode of transport – congestion charges l Regulation of indoor spaces and furnishings l Bonfires in gardens HOPLEY, E. BRIMBLECOMBE, P. Clean Air & Env Prot. 32, 75-77 (2002) THE SCHOOL RUN

19 POLLUTION & PLEASURE SUVs and 2-STROKES l Diesel soot l 2-stroke particles - condensed heavy hydrocarbons l l Lawn-mowers contribute 5-12% CO/HC in Australian cities.

20 FIREWORKS Celebrations a complex issue for policy makers… Nov 5th PM 10 LONDON 180024000600 MILLENNIUM EDINBURGH

21 DOMESTIC /CULTURAL EMISSIONS l Domestic indoor heating and cooking Wood and coal l Cultural outdoor burning Hangi Umu l Bonfires Image source: Te ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand www.teara.govt.nz/EarthSeaAndSky/ClimateAndAtmosphere/Atmosphere/5/ENZ- Resources/Standard/2/2/en#breadcrumbtop l l NES does not regulate domestic fires l l Plan includes rules for domestic fires, but regulation difficult

22 AGGRESSIVE APPROACHES l Mayor Ken Livingstone l Legal challenges l Congestion or pollution control l Profitability l Transfer to other cities

23 CONGESTION CHARGING London from Feb 2003 l 12% reduction in NO 2 l 15% reduction in vehicle km l Expected increase from buses have been offset by introduction of particle traps l Reduction in NOX and PM10 from increases in vehicle speed (~ 2.1 km h -1 ) l Early lack of acceptance may have been thwarted Beevers and Carslaw (2005a,b)

24 SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL l Recognising that the organic material formed in the smog was important l Oxidized compounds, but necessarily non volatile – e.g. dicarboxylic acids

25 TRANSFORMATION ON PARTICLES PAH lifetime on wood smoke and gasoline soot aldehyde of 5a,b-secobenzo(a)pyrene 2.2 min 200 min 5.7 days anthanthrenepyrenebenzo(a)pyrene

26 ON SILICA SURFACES

27 OXIDATION OF NAPTHALENE hν, SiO 2 OH, NO

28 SOLUBILIZATION OF NAPTHALENE K = mC 10 H 8 /pC 10 H 8 Mario Massucci UEA

29 l Surfactants in alveoli aid gas exchange, but also lung defence. l Would aerosol surfactants alter these functions? PULMONARY SURFACTANTS ALVEOLI

30 ALTERNATE FUELS g/mileH/CCONO x gasoline3.1426.2 CNG0.58.62.1 LPG0.451.01.1 Data gathered in the late 1980s…

31 METHANOL IMPACT IN A LARGE CITY l Peak 1h ozone little change l Average O 3 improves l PAN reduced l Increased peak HCHO, but average does not change much

32 BIOFUELS l Methanol –expensive to produce from biomass l Ethanol - from sugar cane automotive fuel in Brazil. Ethanol corn derived gasoline additive in the US, from cellulose waste, perhaps for NZ forest products industry l Biodiesel - Rudolf Diesels engine designed for peanut oil l Direct use of bagasse, rice husks

33 BIOFUELS - PROBLEMS l Wasteful as it often comes from food crops such as corn, sugar, soya oil… l Methanol leads it high formaldehyde concentrations l Methanol/ethanol very water soluble l Biodiesel may lead to high NO x emissions l Bagasse, rice husks or wood may have high hydrochloric acid emissions http://www.ens-newswire.com/ens/jan2002/2002-01-04-06.asp


Download ppt "THE URBAN ATMOSPHERE OF THE 21 ST CENTURY. INHERITANCE FROM 20 TH CENTURY l Liquid fuel – secondary pollution – photochemistry – inversion l Yet traditional."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google