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July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast1 Irish Scholarly Resources: Digitisation, Access, and Context: 2. Making Contextual Resources Accessible for Digital.

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Presentation on theme: "July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast1 Irish Scholarly Resources: Digitisation, Access, and Context: 2. Making Contextual Resources Accessible for Digital."— Presentation transcript:

1 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast1 Irish Scholarly Resources: Digitisation, Access, and Context: 2. Making Contextual Resources Accessible for Digital Resources -- ecai.org/neh2007 Michael Buckland Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative and School of Information, Univ. of California, Berkeley Work supported by the Institute for Museum and Library Studies and by the National Endowment for the Humanities.

2 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast2 Context determines understanding! Five ideas about use of digital corpora Understanding requires knowing the context.

3 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast3 Five ideas about use of digital corpora Understanding requires knowing the context. 2. Using Internet resources should be like using a library reference collection – and as easy and as reliable. 3. Design: Find the context of any document, word, name, museum object, or event: What is related to it in what it is, where it came from, when it originated, and who is associated with it? 4.WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, and WHO (4W) as a structure. 5.Make better use of existing descriptive metadata.

4 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast4 Any word, name, document, or event Any resource: Audio, Images, Texts, Numeric data, Objects, Virtual reality, Webpages Any catalog: Archives, Libraries, Museums, TV, Publishers Connect it with its context – and other resources. Facet Vocabulary Displays WHAT Thesaurus Cross- e.g. LCSH references WHERE Gazetteer Map WHEN Period directory Timeline WHO Biograph. dict. Personal e.g. Whos Who relations Context and relationships: Ireland and Irish Studies – ecai.org/neh2007

5 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast5 WHAT Subject headings Cross-references in & between vocabularies Kung fu movies SEE Martial Arts films FORMERLY Hand-to-hand fighting, oriental, in motion pictures Automobile in four dialects: - PASS MOT VEH, SPARK IGN ENG (U.S.Import/Export statistics) - TL 205 (Library of Congress Classification) - 180/280 (US Patent classification) (Standard Industrial Classification) HS Digital auto data proc mach contng in the same housing a CPU and input & output device.(International Harmonized Commodity Classification System). NEED TO MAP TO & BETWEEN UNFAMILIAR VOCABULARIES = Computer!

6 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast6 WHEN? What happened in IRELAND in 1690s? Time Period Directory records in Google Earth. Zoom to Ireland and 1690s. Icon for siege of Limerick, Click link for library search. Catalog records list books and show context.

7 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast7 WHERE Place name gazetteer Map Ctesiphon (Ancient site) Dots link to portal

8 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast8

9 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast9 WHO Biographical Dictionary Complex relationships Life events metadata WHAT: Actions prisoner WHERE: Places Holstein WHEN: Times WHO: People Margaret Sambiria But ideally we need external links to the best resources! Current project: Context finding for biographical texts. Example: Electronic search engine pioneer.

10 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast10 Emanuel Goldberg, b. Moscow, 1881; son of Grigorii Goldberg; Univ. of Moscow, ; Ph.D w. Robert Luther, Leipzig Univ., 1906; Assistant, Adolf Miethe, TU Charlottenburg, ; Prof, Akad. f. graphische Künste, Leipzig, ; ICA, Zeiss Ikon, Dresden, ; Kinamo cine camera, 1921; microdots, 1925; search engine, 1927; Contax 35 mm camera 1932; kidnapped by Nazi SA; refugee in Paris, ; Laboratory, Palestine, Israel, 1937; d WHO? Click a name to search for an internet resource.

11 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast11 Emanuel Goldberg, b. Moscow, 1881; son of Grigorii Goldberg; Univ. of Moscow, ; Ph.D w. Robert Luther, Leipzig Univ., 1906; Assistant, Adolf Miethe, TU Charlottenburg, ; Prof, Akad. f. graphische Künste, Leipzig, ; ICA, Zeiss Ikon, Dresden, ; Kinamo cine camera, 1921; microdots, 1925; search engine, 1927; Contax 35 mm camera 1932; kidnapped by Nazi SA; refugee in Paris, ; Laboratory, Palestine, Israel, 1937; d WHERE? Trace a life-path.

12 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast12 Emanuel Goldberg, b. Moscow, 1881; son of Grigorii Goldberg; Univ. of Moscow, ; Ph.D w. Robert Luther, Leipzig Univ., 1906; Assistant, Adolf Miethe, TU Charlottenburg, ; Prof, Akad. f. graphische Künste, Leipzig, ; ICA, Zeiss Ikon, Dresden, ; Kinamo cine camera, 1921; microdots, 1925; search engine, 1927; Contax 35 mm camera 1932; kidnapped by Nazi SA; refugee in Paris, ; Laboratory, Palestine, Israel, 1937; d WHAT?

13 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast13 Initial sketch for Context Finding / Building interface. Save search path Save link & notes as stand-off markup. Save link & notes as embedded mark-up. Insert / block text Define facet Ranked lists of suggested resources for each facet chosen Display of search result

14 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast14 Scanned textNamed Entities Name finder

15 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast15 Hovering over a named entity highlights the areas where it appears in the text.

16 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast16 Named entities are linked to specific resources or dynamic searches over relevant databases.

17 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast17 Initially, named entities are linked to keyword searches at the appropriate name authorities and metadata services. Here we see a number of possible candidates for Henry V.

18 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast18 When editing an entity, the user can disambiguate it by linking it to a specific record from a naming authority. Here, the user is specifying that this instance of Henry V refers to Henry V King of England

19 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast19 Now that it has been disambiguated, the named entity links directly to the appropriate record.

20 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast20 Named entities not detected automatically can be added manually.

21 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast21 Edmund Hogans Onomasticon Goedelicum : Locorum et Tribuum Hiberniae et Scotiae = An Index, with Identifications, to the Gaelic Names of Places and Tribes If searchable online, one could, when reading an Irish studies text: 1. Search it (Context finder) 2. Markup text with links to it (Context builder); 3. Markup Hogan with reverse links to the Irish studies text (Context provider) – with rich consequences.

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24 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast24

25 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast25 Links create infrastructure

26 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast26 Facet Vocabulary Displays Reference Genre WHAT Topics Cross-references Dictionary, Encyclopedia WHERE PlacesMaps Atlas, gazetteer WHEN Periods Timeline Almanac, Chronology WHO Persons Personal relationships Biogr.dictionary, Whos Who Reference Genre Vocabulary Displays Facet Dictionary, encyclopedia TopicsCross-refs WHAT Atlas, gazetteerPlacesMaps WHERE Almanac, chronology Time Timelines WHEN Biogr. Dict., Whos WhoPersons Personal relationships WHO Paper-based reference collection: Codex determines structure and use. Reversed in a digital environment: Metadata forms infrastructure. The reference library is needed in the digital library environment.

27 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast27 Conclusion: -- The context finder supports reference queries; -- The context builder prompts reference queries; -- The context provider develops a reference environment far richer than could be provided on paper; -- These tools would empower users and well as reference librarians and editors, publishers, and everyone else even from laptops in dorms from 9 p.m. to 5 a.m. -- This approach should work with any digital corpus

28 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast28 Any word, name, document, or event Any resource: Audio, Images, Texts, Numeric data, Objects, Virtual reality, Webpages Any catalog: Archives, Libraries, Museums, TV, Publishers Connect it with its context – and other resources. Facet Vocabulary Displays WHAT Thesaurus Cross- e.g. LCSH references WHERE Gazetteer Map WHEN Period directory Timeline WHO Biograph. dict. Personal e.g. Whos Who relations Context and relationships: Ireland and Irish Studies -- ecai.org/neh2007

29 July 11, 2008CNI-JISC-UKOLN, Belfast29 We gratefully acknowledge the support of the Institute for Museum and Library Services and the National Endowment for the Humanities. - Support for the learner: What, Where, When and Who. (IMLS) - Bringing lives to light: Biography in context. (IMLS) - Context and relationships: Ireland and Irish studies. (NEH & IMLS)


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