Presentation on theme: "PED 383: Adapted Physical Education Dr. Johnson. Reactive – Applied after the fact Punishments Time outs Detentions No recess Proactive Address situation."— Presentation transcript:
Reactive – Applied after the fact Punishments Time outs Detentions No recess Proactive Address situation before problems MWSU = Management concerns How you set up your class
Respondent Conditioning Automatic control of response by antecedent stimuli Operant Conditioning Control of behavior by regulating the consequences that follow a behavior Contingency management Relation between behavior and the events that follow Behavior Modeling Learning through observing another person engaged in a behavior
Stimulus A measureable event that might have an influence on a behavior Reinforcement A stimulus event that increases or maintains the frequency of a response Positive – rewards prizes, words, looks Negative – An aversive stimuli Something the student wants to avoid Doesn’t always work. Differing views of wanting o avoid the result Detention vs attention (bad boy) Punishment – decreasing the negative frequency.
Premack Principle Use of highly preferred activities to control the occurrence of a less preferred response Reinforcers Primary Neede for survival Secondary Must be learned – grades, money or praise Vicarious Observing results (positive or negative) when done by others
Continuous Reinforcement Happens every time an occurrence happens Ratio Schedules Occurs every “X” times something occurs (i.e every 3 times) Interval Schedules Occurs after a specific amount of time has passed Fixed (consistent) Variable (non-consistent)
Shaping Administering reinforcement contingent on the learning and performance of sequential steps leading to development of the desired behavior Chaining A series of discrete links that lead to enhanced performance of behaviors Prompting Events that help initiate a response Fading Stretching the schedule of reinforcements so that the student must perform more trials or demonstrate significantly better response quality in order to receive reinforcement Modeling Visual demonstration of a behavior that students are expected to perform Token Economy Reinforcements based on tokens (rewards) Contingency Management When teachers change a behavior by providing a stimulus contingent on the occurance of a desired response.
Reinforcement of other behaviors Reinforcing a student for engaging in any behavior other than the targeted behavior Reinforcement of incompatible behavior Reinforce the teamwork when they have trouble when eliminating not cooperating. Reinforcement of low response rates Rewarded for gradually reducing the behavior Punishment Type 1 – negative consequence (Detention) Type 2 – Removal of a positive (no more Ice Cream) Time-out Assuming they wanted to do what they were doing
Considers only behaviors that are precisely defined and capable of being seen Assumes that knowing the intrapsychic cause of a particular behavior is not a prerequisite for changing it Encourages a thorough analysis of the environmental conditions and factors that might influence the behavior Facilitates functional independence by employing a system of least prompts (least to most intrusive) Requires precise measurement to demonstrate a cause and effect relation between the behavioral interventions and the behavior being changed
Actual use of behavioral principles in a consistent and systematic manner is not as simple as it might seem. Behavioral might fail when what is thought to be a controlling stimulus is not so in reality Behavioral techniques might not work initially, requiring more analysis to determine if other techniques would be helpful.
Views inappropriate behaviors as students maladaptive attempts to cope with their environment It assumes academic failure and misbehavior can be remedied directly if students are taught how to achieve and behave appropriately Educate whole student
Strives to improve emotional functioning by helping students understand why they are functioning inappropriately Accept the student, but not the undesirable behavior Develop self-knowledge
Assumes that the behavioral problems are caused by a disturbance in the student’s environment or ecosystem Student and environment influence each other in a reciprocal and negative manner Students demeanor causes a negative environment and the environment causes a negative student reaction Angry student upsets friends so they do not want to play……friends not wanting to play with them, causes the student to become angry
Relies on diagnostic techniques that explore signs and symptoms Physicians attempt to locate problems Drug therapy based on symptoms / signs
5 primary human needs Physiological needs Safety Belongingness and love Esteem Self-actualization Humans seek to meet unsatisfied needs at progressively higher levels as lower needs are met. As one need is met, we move to the “next lowest”