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A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk Emerging Technologies and the Net Generation: Addressing The Barriers Brian Kelly.

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Presentation on theme: "A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk Emerging Technologies and the Net Generation: Addressing The Barriers Brian Kelly."— Presentation transcript:

1 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk Emerging Technologies and the Net Generation: Addressing The Barriers Brian Kelly UK Web UKOLN University of Bath Bath UK, BA2 7AY UKOLN is supported by: alt-c / alt-c / Acceptable Use Policy Recording/broadcasting of this talk, taking photographs, discussing the content using , instant messaging, Blogs, SMS, etc. is permitted providing distractions to others is minimised. Acceptable Use Policy Recording/broadcasting of this talk, taking photographs, discussing the content using , instant messaging, Blogs, SMS, etc. is permitted providing distractions to others is minimised. This work is licensed under a Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence (but note caveat)

2 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 2 Contents Time To Change The Catch Phrase Addressing Cultural Change: The IT/Library Barrier The Conservative Academic Barrier The Conservative Institution Addressing The Standards Barrier Addressing The Accessibility Barriers

3 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 3 Need To Change Catch Phrases Computer Says No! Time to ditch this catch phrase Wikis? IT Services says no Folksonomies? Library says no Skype? UKERNA says no Wikis? IT Services says no Folksonomies? Library says no Skype? UKERNA says no Yer, but, no, but, yer Time to embrace the ambiguities acknowledged by Vicky Pollard Yer, like Wikis are well cool, but, OK so I copied my homework, but, like I always copy my homework Images from BBC Web site Need for Culture Change

4 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 4 Beware The IT Fundamentalists We need to avoid simplistic solutions to the complexities of (a) technologies and (b) the HE environment: Open Standards Fundamentalist: we just need XML Open Source Fundamentalist: we just need Linux Vendor Fundamentalist: we must need next version of our enterprise system (and you must fit in with this) Accessibility Fundamentalist: we must do WAI WCAG User Fundamentalist: we must do whatever users want Legal Fundamentalist: it breaches copyright, … Ownership Fundamentalist: must own everything Perfectionist: It doesn't do everything, so we'll do nothing Simplistic Developer: I've developed a perfect solution – I don't care if it doesn't run in the real world IT Services Barrier

5 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 5 The Librarian Fundamentalists Librarians: Think they know better than the user e.g. they don't like people using Google Scholar; they should use Web of Knowledge (who cares that users find it easier to use Google Scholar & finds references they need that way?) Think that users should be forced to learn Boolean searching & other formal search techniques because this is good for them. Don't want the users to search for themselves (cf folksonomies) because they won't get it right. They still want to classify the entire Web - despite the fact that users don't use their lists of Web links. Want services to be perfect before they will release them to their users. They are very uncomfortable with the concept of 'forever beta' (because they don't believe that their users have the capability to figure these things out for themselves and work around the bugs). Library Barrier

6 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 6 The Problem With Academics The enthusiastic academics will be: Encouraged by Web 2.0 descriptions Cheering the critiques of the service departments However: Many academic are conservative & won't care Many will feel threatened Many won't like WiFi in lecture theatres, students chatting on IRC, Googling answers, … Many will soon ask for WiFi to be removed, blocked from lecture theatres (including areas where it's not yet available!) Academics Barrier You can help by adding extra examples

7 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 7 Problems With Senior Management / Users Senior management: Don't understand technologies Can be conservative More comfortable with conventional business relations with vendors May be over-cautious about being sued … Users: Can be conservative Many don't understand technologies Those that do may use the technologies in dangerous ways … You can help by adding extra examples

8 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 8 Addressing the Barriers How do we address such barriers: A change in culture Being more open (surely what HE is about?) Revisiting AUPs Developing more sophisticated models for standards, accessibility, open source, … (and learning, staff development, assessment, …) Integrating IT policies with institutional policies Developing key principles Ongoing debate and discussion

9 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 9 Acceptable Use Policies (AUP) Is Skype Permitted over JANET? "The Computing Service is frequently asked for a ruling on whether Skype may legitimately be used... the Computing Service considers that use of Skype contravenes the JANET Acceptable Use Policy, although UKERNA does not concur with this view." Missing The Point? There may be (religious) debates over the interpretation of UKERNA's words. But Did the policy come from God? Is it infallible? Why do we hide behind AUPs? Proposal: An AUP is meant to work on behalf of an organisation, helping to ensure the effective use of IT by its users. An AUP should not be used as a control mechanism to prevent usage which IT staff may frown upon. Proposal: An AUP is meant to work on behalf of an organisation, helping to ensure the effective use of IT by its users. An AUP should not be used as a control mechanism to prevent usage which IT staff may frown upon. Revisiting AUPs

10 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 10 The Need For An AUPP AUPs: Shouldn't be cast in stone: technologies change; usage changes; culture changes (e.g. AUPs banning social use; ; Web; messaging; …) Therefore need for mechanisms for changing AUPs and engagement with users Proposal: We need an Acceptable Use Policy Process (AUPP) We need mechanisms to ensure users can input into the discussion process We need more flexibility in our AUPs (e.g. to reflect blended learning, pervasiveness of IT; …) Revisiting AUPs

11 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 11 Example of AUPP For Skype Background: P2P applications banned: typically used for downloading copyrighted materials Legitimate uses of P2P grow e.g. Internet telephony Discussions: Skype is proprietary; lack of management control; can degrade performance; SIP provides open alternative; … Skype works; minimal support needed; provides rich functionality not available with SIP (e.g. video; shared browsing; etc.); my remote colleagues use Skype; … Pragmatic Solution (Yer, but no, but yer): Evaluation period Network problems in halls banned there in response to user concerns; discouraged on campus, until technical solutions (e.g. network shaper) tested, with plans to then liberalise policy (or SIP is usable) Revisiting AUPs

12 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 12 A Blairite Vision Of Control? The government wishes to introduce: ID cards Greater powers of arrest … in order to minimise the dangers of global terrorism IT Services (esp. networking staff) seem to wish to: Manage applications used by users Ban certain software … in order to minimise dangers of computer attacks The rational for organisations to wish to introduce greater control mechanisms is understandable. But citizens / users may regard such measures as not also necessary and may tolerate some level of risk-taking. (And do any of the above "sex up" the information to achieve these goals?) The rational for organisations to wish to introduce greater control mechanisms is understandable. But citizens / users may regard such measures as not also necessary and may tolerate some level of risk-taking. (And do any of the above "sex up" the information to achieve these goals?) IT Services Barrier Possibly UK-centric analogy?

13 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 13 Need For Shared Understanding UKOLN/UCISA/CETIS workshop on Disruptive Technologies agreed on potential benefits for principles on mutual understanding between user community and IT Services Draft Principles for Service Providers User Focus: We will ensure that priority is given to a user focussed approach to our services. Avoiding Dogma: We will develop policies (e.g. standards, open source, accessibility, …) would these will evolve and won't be used in a dogmatic way. Responsive to Change: We will seek to be responsive to changes in technology, user needs, cultural and political developments. Good Communications: We will establish (and monitor) effective communications channels Learning: We recognise that HEIs will seek to make use of IT in innovative ways and we will support such innovation Draft Principles for Service Providers User Focus: We will ensure that priority is given to a user focussed approach to our services. Avoiding Dogma: We will develop policies (e.g. standards, open source, accessibility, …) would these will evolve and won't be used in a dogmatic way. Responsive to Change: We will seek to be responsive to changes in technology, user needs, cultural and political developments. Good Communications: We will establish (and monitor) effective communications channels Learning: We recognise that HEIs will seek to make use of IT in innovative ways and we will support such innovation

14 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 14 Proposed Principles (2) Draft Principles for Developers Scalability: Developers will recognise that there will be scalability issues to be addressed if innovations are to be deployed into service. Sustainability : Developers will recognise that innovations need to be sustainable if they are to be deployed into service. R eliability : Developers will recognise that a high level of reliability is needed if innovations are to be deployed... Integration : Developers will recognise that innovative services may need to be integrated with existing systems. Consistency : Developers will recognise that innovations need to be harmonised with existing systems (e.g. avoid replicating functionality, …) (Also need something on security) Draft principles available

15 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 15 Framework For Diversity: Standards Open Standards – the Challenges Open standards? Yer, great. Like, Bill Gates is SO evil. But, well RDF, hmm. OSI? Coloured Books? How old do you take me for? No, but, I always use MS Windows for playing games. Contextual Approach A contextual approach to standards has been developed: Recognises context (not one-size- fits-all) Scalable for use by others See "A Standards Framework For Digital Library Programmes", ichim05 conf & "A Contextual Framework For Standards" at E-Government: Barriers & Opportunities workshop, May 2006 Purpose Governance MaturityRisks … SectorFundingResearch … ExternalSelf assessment Learning … Context: Compliance External factors: legal, cultural, … … Context: Policies Annotated Standards Catalogue Richer Models

16 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 16 Framework For Diversity: Accessibility Accessibility – the Challenges WAI WCAG – important area and high visibility But the model is flawed, fails to take into account developments e.g. can you use Podcasts? Holistic / Approach Blended Holistic approach to e-learning accessibility developed Accessibility of learning outcomes (not necessarily digital resources) is paramount WAI WCAG are guidelines See "Implementing A Holistic Approach To E-Learning Accessibility" prize-winning ALT- C 2005 paper Follow up paper at W4A 2006, May 2006 will further develop model WAI Richer Models

17 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 17 Framework For Diversity: Accessibility Holistic framework for e-learning accessibility published in CJLT (2004): Users Needs Focuses on the user and recognises importance of: External pressures e.g. funders, QAA, … Technical infrastructure Resource implications Learning & teaching outcomes (cf blended learning) Requires QA based on documented policies & systematic checking Follow-up work awarded prize for Best Research Paper at ALT-C 2005 E-learning conference Richer Models

18 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 18 Tangram Model (1) Generic model is being developed: W3C model has severe limitations WCAG Usability Flash OS … Jigsaw model implies single solution Tangram model encourages diversity of solutions This approach: Encourages diversity of solutions Focus on 'pleasure' it provides to user This approach: Encourages diversity of solutions Focus on 'pleasure' it provides to user Paper on work to be given at W4A workshop, Edinburgh, May 2006

19 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 19 Tangram Model (2) Guidelines/standards for/from: WAI Usability Organisational Dyslexic Learning difficulties Legal Management (resources, …) Interoperability Accessibility metadata Model allows us to: Focuses on end solution rather than individual components Provided solutions tailored for end user Doesn't limit scope (can you do better than WAI AAA?) Make use of automated checking – but ensures emphasis is on user satisfaction

20 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 20 Questions Any questions, comments, etc?


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