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Long-Term Retention & Reuse of E-Learning Objects and Materials Dr Roger Rist Director ICBL Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh.

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Presentation on theme: "Long-Term Retention & Reuse of E-Learning Objects and Materials Dr Roger Rist Director ICBL Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh."— Presentation transcript:

1 Long-Term Retention & Reuse of E-Learning Objects and Materials Dr Roger Rist Director ICBL Heriot-Watt University Edinburgh

2 Team of ICBL and AHDS zInstitute for Computer Based Learning yRoger Rist yEd Barker yColin Milligan zArts and Humanities Data Service yHamish James yGareth Knight yMalcolm Polfreman

3 JISC Requirement zThe Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) commissioned this study on long- term retention and re-use for e-Learning Objects and Materials. zPart of the implementation of the JISC Continuing Access and Digital Preservation Strategy 2002-5 and its support for e- learning programmes.

4 ICT for Learning There is growing recognition that Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has a considerable amount to offer as a tool to support many areas of learning and teaching from its administration, through to face-to-face or remote delivery.

5 E-Learning The perceived potential of ICT to help colleges and universities address the challenges presented by increased student numbers, new student demographics and widening participation has brought the concept of E-Learning to the fore.

6 Still in early stages E-Learning is at an early phase of evolution and current research and development is focussed on the creation of materials and implementation and inter-operability of current systems.

7 Study Aims zComplementary to JORUM zFocusing on: yCreation and use of useful e-learning materials yInfrastructure for long-term management of e-learning materials yDigital preservation issues with e-learning materials

8 Intended Audience zStudy on three major levels zFindings and recommendations for three constituencies: yJISC as a central agency within UK HE/FE yIndividual HE/FE institutions yIndividual teachers and staff

9 Creation and Reuse zWhy no large banks of E-Learning resources? zNew and experimental – a lot of hype, plus some substance zDevelopment has been driven by technology, not pedagogy zTechnology itself is evolving zE-Learning is not yet commonly accepted by FE & HE staff yStill the domain of a small number of early adopters

10 History zSince 1990 many Learning Technology initiatives e.g. CTI, TLTP, Use of MANs, 5/99,... zLittle evidence that outputs of UK projects have been retained and reused on a significant level to date

11 Some Long-Lived Projects zDeveloped with clear short term advantages ySCRAN, COLEG, EUROMET zWhat these projects have in common: yFocus on distinct market areas yResponsive to end users yClear and specific aims about what sort of materials they are accepting/producing yEmphasis on quality and evaluation of outputs yAvoid reliance on external websites or other resources

12 Long-Term Implications zCustodianship zCoherent funding strategies zWho assesses quality, how is quality assessed zMaintaining pedagogical relevance zOther sustainability and preservation activities

13 Current Developments zFocus is on development of interoperable repository infrastructure to support e- learning: yDevelopment of standards for E-Learning yRepository Projects are being set up: HLSI, JORUM, institutional repositories, NLN etc yVLE use is increasing zRepositories to manage learning objects

14 A Learning Object is zan aggregation of one or more digital assets incorporating metadata which constitute an educationally meaningful stand-alone unit, Dalziel zDefined here as any resource that can be used to facilitate learning and teaching and has been described using metadata, JORUM

15 E-Learning Objects zare Learning Objects comprised of digital resources zReusability = the aim to reduce duplication of effort and improve quality

16 Factors Affecting Reusability zGranularity zTechnical dependency zContent dependency

17 Granularity zIf a LO is too large or conceptually complex it may be difficult to reuse in different contexts.

18 Technical and Content dependency zTechnical dependency: is the LO technically dependent on other resources? E.g. HTML linked in a linear navigation sequence, interactive content with server side scripts. zContent dependency: does the content of the LO reference other related, but external, resources? E.g. a glossary or the next module in a sequence.

19 -abilities zInteroperability zRe-usability zManageability zAccessibility zDurability zScalability zAffordability

20 Technical Considerations zLearning objects may contain any type of content yWide range of preservation problems, and potential solutions zNeed more connections between digital preservation work and e-learning work

21 Repositories and Learning Objects zFacilitate movement of resources zAllow cross searching zSupport long term retention of materials, packaged as learning objects zBe able to cater for the varying different end user groups in FE and HE zInteroperability with institutional VLE

22 Model

23 Key Elements zE-Learning coordination yInstitutions yNational/regional/consortia? zMultiple implementations yNational archival repository yInstitutional + other types of repository

24 Current Work zIPR zPedagogy for e-learning zSocial and practical issues zMay be implemented through metadata attached to e-learning objects

25 IPR zInstitutions recognise value of learning materials and will want to control access zIndividuals want rewards zNeed to allow for variety of IPR scenarios e.g. sharing, buying etc yNeed clarity and simplicity for end user yNeeds to be considered at creation and publishing phase yNeeds to be retained in the long term

26 Pedagogy zLearning Object Theory yGranularity, disaggregation/ reaggregation zBrick and Mortar analogy yDangerous to enforce pedagogy yExperimentation necessary for different purposes (especially for face to face teaching)

27 Future: Quality Assurance zUsers want quality assurance zA publishing process is needed yPeer review yEstablishment of rights zStandardised quality mark?

28 Summary of Requirements zCreation of E-Learning objects needs to be focussed on requirements of end-users zEncourage uptake of E-Learning objects zPlan and build a sustainable infrastructure for discovery, delivery and management of E-Learning objects

29 Recommendations: End Users zMore awareness of the limitations of e-learning resources and this may mean large-scale end- user studies that start from a non-technical perspective before looking at how technology can help. zWork has been done into looking at reusing resources for distance learning by the Open University. zResearch still needed into the practicalities of reusing learning materials in Face-To-Face situations.

30 Recommendations: Uptake zStudies into how end users make use of existing e-learning objects zEfficient methods of resource discovery must be established yDevelopment and promotion of portals yAdoption of standards for descriptive metadata zImproved communication between end-users and resource creators.

31 Recommendations: Infrastructure zGreater communication between e- learning activities and digital preservation activities. zSupport for a distributed network of repositories.

32 Contact zDr Roger Rist zInstitute for Computer Based Learning zHeriot-Watt University zReport on JISC website: me_preservation

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