Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Key Sociological Concepts. Culture “An inherited system of ▫Symbolic forms & ▫Moral demands That controls individual behavior”

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Key Sociological Concepts. Culture “An inherited system of ▫Symbolic forms & ▫Moral demands That controls individual behavior”"— Presentation transcript:

1 Key Sociological Concepts

2 Culture “An inherited system of ▫Symbolic forms & ▫Moral demands That controls individual behavior”

3 Culture Symbolic Forms ▫Signs  Actions or gestures used to communicate an idea ▫Symbols  Signs to which we attach generalized meanings Language Formal knowledge systems (intellectual disciplines) Informal knowledge systems

4 Aspects of Culture Diversity: ▫Variations in the symbolic/moral systems underlying different human societies ▫Related to pluralism (diversity within a society) Universals: ▫Beliefs, values, practices common to all human societies Relativism: ▫What people consider to be "normal" is specific to that society/culture & historical period

5 Aspects of Culture Ethnocentrism: ▫The belief that one's own culture is preferable and superior to others Values: ▫Broad general standards about how things ought to be

6 Social Structures Repeated and more or less predictable patterns of behavior ▫Patterns produced by norms ▫Norms are produced by values Norms ▫Rules for how things ought to be done  Informal  Invisible (Asch, elevator)http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=HRFx7YU6eXE (Asch, lines)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sno1TpCLj6A&feature=player_detailpage

7 Social Structures Norms enforced by Sanctions ▫Rewards for abiding by the norm &/or ▫Punishments for violating the norm

8 Types of Social Structure & Their Definitions Status ▫A social position Role ▫The behavior expected of a person because of the social position they occupy Ascribed Status ▫A social position based upon some inherited characteristic

9 Types of Social Structure & Their Definitions Achieved Status ▫An earned social position Status/Role Set ▫All of the social positions a person occupies Status/Role Consistency ▫The degree to which there is congruence among social positions in a person’s status set (Status)-Role Strain ▫Conflicting social statuses

10 Types of Social Structure & Their Definitions Group ▫Two or more statuses  Shared norms  Oriented to a general purpose ▫Primary Groups  Small, long-lasting, intimate  Intrinsic reward ▫Secondary Groups  Large, short-term, instrumental  Extrinsic reward

11 Types of Social Structure & Their Definitions Organizations ▫Two or more groups  Shared norms  Oriented to one or more purposes Institutions ▫Society-wide, aggregate patterns of behavior, designed to  Solve specific problems &/or  Accomplish specific tasks

12 Types of Social Structure & Their Definitions Society ▫“A population of people ▫In a territory ▫With an identity (shared) ▫That survives across at least two generations” Most inclusive and complex form of social structure

13 Relationship Between Culture & Social Structure Social Structure: ▫Repeated and more or less predictable patterns of behavior Culture: ▫An inherited system of symbolic forms and moral demands that controls individual behavior Relationship is Dialectical Social structures both produce & are produced by culture

14 Culture and Social Structure Dialectical Relationship Culture Social Structure Society Institutions Groups Status-Role Symbolic Forms Language Knowledge Systems Moral Demands

15 Four Universal Institutions Economy ▫“That institution in society that arranges for the production & distribution of the goods needed for survival”  Hunter-Gatherer  Agrarian  Industrial (Capitalism, Socialism, Communism)

16 Four Universal Institutions Polity (Political System) ▫“That institution in society that arranges for the distribution of power”  Violence  Democracy  Monarchy  Totalitarian

17 Four Universal Institutions Religion ▫“That institution in society that helps people adjust to those things which are both undesirable and inescapable.”

18 Four Universal Institutions Kinship (Family) ▫“That institution in society that arranges for:  Regulation of sexual relations  Who may have sex with whom?  Child-rearing  Who cares for the young?  Household composition  Who lives with whom?


Download ppt "Key Sociological Concepts. Culture “An inherited system of ▫Symbolic forms & ▫Moral demands That controls individual behavior”"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google