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Thinking collectively: resource disclosure through collection-level description mda Conference Common Threads, Edgbaston, Birmingham, 6 September 2002.

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Presentation on theme: "Thinking collectively: resource disclosure through collection-level description mda Conference Common Threads, Edgbaston, Birmingham, 6 September 2002."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thinking collectively: resource disclosure through collection-level description mda Conference Common Threads, Edgbaston, Birmingham, 6 September 2002 Bridget Robinson (content by Pete Johnston) UKOLN, University of Bath Bath, BA2 7AY UKOLN is supported by:

2 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Thinking collectively: resource disclosure through CLD The resource discovery context Collections, collection description & collection-level description Approaches to collection description Applying collection-level description

3 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September The resource discovery context Strategic initiatives for museums –Renaissance in the Regions –Single Regional Agencies –Re:source Framework for Collections Management And elsewhere…. –Libraries: –Peoples Network : connectivity –Full Disclosure : retrospective cataloguing –Research Support Libraries Programme : disclosure/access, collaborative management –Archives: –Access to Archives, Scottish Archival Network, Archives Hub : integrated access

4 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September The resource discovery context Digital content creation programmes –making heritage (more) accessible –NOF-Digitise –£50m content creation programme –supporting strategy for social inclusion, lifelong learning –digitised objects –learning materials –130 projects, Summer –Culture Online –to widen access to resources of arts/cultural sector for purposes of learning and enjoyment

5 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September The resource discovery context Broader resource discovery context –user wants information relevant to task/activity –may see structural/organisational boundaries of information providers as unimportant! –content providers exposing content through multiple services, channels –service providers surfacing content from multiple (distributed) sources … from web sites to portals

6 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September The resource discovery context Technological context –XML everywhere…. –Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting Release Version 2.0 (stable) –enabling sharing of metadata records (using XML over HTTP) –Web Services (SOAP etc) –enabling modular distributed applications (communicating using XML over HTTP) CIMI –Dublin Core testbed –Metadata harvesting using OAI PMH –CIMI XML Schema for SPECTRUM testbed

7 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September The resource discovery context e.g. HEIRPORT –Cross-searching metadata databases of ADS, RCAHMS, SCRAN, Portable Antiquities –Z39.50 search/retrieval protocol –Dublin Core (in XML)

8 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September

9 9 The resource discovery context Access… Integration… Collaboration…. Interoperability as recombinant potential (Dempsey, 2002) The whole is more than the sum of the parts

10 Collections, collection description & collection-level description

11 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September What is a collection? Collection –an aggregation of items Aggregations of, e.g. –natural objects: fossils, mineral samples… –created objects: artefacts, documents, records… –digital resources: documents, images, multimedia objects, data, software… –digital surrogates of physical objects: documents, images… –metadata: catalogue records, item descriptions, collection-level descriptions (!)…

12 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September What is a collection? Various criteria for aggregation, e.g. –By location –By type/form of item –By provenance of item –By source/ownership of item –By nature of item content –…. Permanent, temporary Discrete, distributed Collections created with intent/purpose –collection development policies

13 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September What is a collection? CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model draft v3.3.2, 31 July 2002 –E78 Collection –Subclass of: Physical Man-Made Stuff –Scope Note: This entity describes an aggregate of items, which is maintained by an Actor following a plan of cultural relevance over time. Things may be added or taken out of a collection in pursuit of this plan. A collection is designed for a certain public, and the conservation of the collected items is normally catered for.

14 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September What is a collection? Museums –collections of physical objects/items –collections of digital objects/items –collections of metadata records –describing physical objects –describing digital objects Collections are made available to users through services

15 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Physical service Physical location Physical services make physical collections available at physical locations Collection of physical items

16 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Collection of digital items Web site Network service Digital location Network services make digital collections available at digital locations

17 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Physical service Catalogue Web interface Digital location Network service Digital catalogue (Collection of digital metadata records) Physical location Physical services make physical collections available at physical locations Collection of physical items

18 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Digital location Collection of digital metadata records Collection of digital items Web site Network service Digital location Network services make digital collections available at digital locations

19 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September User wants to know… Which collections are relevant to their requirement? –subject/coverage of items? –type? –legal status? –conditions of access/use? –etc What services make those collections available? –location? –access? –etc

20 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September OAI repository Harvest via OAI- PMH Z39.50 target Search/retrieve via Z39.50 Web site Collection of digital metadata records SOAP receiver operations via SOAP unstructured network service structured network service Collections of digital metadata records made available through multiple network services

21 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September OAI Repository A OAI Repository B Harvest via OAI PMH Portal site C Web site A Collection of digital metadata records Collection of physical items Web site B Collection of digital metadata records Collection of digital items

22 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September User wants to know… Which collections are relevant to their requirement? –subject/coverage of items? –type? –legal status? –conditions of access/use? –etc What services make those collections available? –location? –access? –etc User may be human researcher or software tool

23 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September The problem Weve created this incredible constellation of collections, of pools of information accessible through the Net. And people cant find which pool to look in –(Lynch, 2002)

24 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Collection description Describing the pools…. Hierarchic –info about collection as whole, and about items (and relationships between items and whole) Analytic –info about items in collection Indexing –info derived from items in collection Unitary –info about collection as whole, not about items –collection-level description –(typology from Heaney 2000)

25 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Why collection-level description? Enable collection provider to –disclose information about collections –overview of otherwise uncatalogued items –summary where item-level detail inappropriate/unavailable –manage collections –in collaboration with other providers –inform strategic planning –e.g. Resource –assess priorities for item-level cataloguing –e.g. Full Disclosure

26 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Why collection-level description? Enable user to –discover/locate collections –physical/digital –select collections to explore/search on basis of summary description –physical/digital –compare collections as broadly similar objects even where items heterogeneous

27 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Why collection-level description? Enable software agents to –select (digital metadata) collections to search on behalf of user –e.g. on basis of profile/preferences –perform searches across multiple (digital metadata) collections

28 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Why not collection-level description? What is a collection? –the functional granularity question –even-ness across contexts, domains Absence of cross-domain consensus on schemas for CLD? Access points for CLD –What is the subject of a museum collection? Uncertainty of value of CLD, compared to item-level description? –resource managers, resource users Collection-level description v collection asssessment?

29 Approaches to collection-level description

30 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September IMLS on collection description Collections should be described so that a user can discover important characteristics of the collection, including scope, format, restrictions on access, ownership, and any information significant for determining the collections authenticity, integrity and interpretation. IMLS Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections

31 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September CLDs in archives Collections defined by provenance of (unique, physical) items –records of organisation or individual –principle that value of individual record derives from context, relationships Archival description –emphasis on multi-level resource description –hierarchical collection description –well-established standards e.g. ISAD(G), EAD Established services: NRA, Archives Hub, A2A, SCAN etc

32 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September CLDs in libraries Focus on description of (non-unique, physical) item –well-established standards (MARC, AACR2) –shared cataloguing –emphasis on discovery Until recently, CLD informal, unstructured Collections defined by –location –subject Standards –some use of MARC for CLD (especially in USA) –deployment of RSLP CD schema by RSLP projects

33 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September CLDs in libraries RSLP Collection Description project Michael Heaney, An Analytical Model of Collections and their Catalogues –Entity-Relationship model –Implementation independent –Based mainly on library/archival view of collection –but intended to be applicable across wide range of collection types RSLP Collection Description schema –Andy Powell (UKOLN) –structured set of metadata attributes –simple description of subset of entities in model –attributes based on Dublin Core Element Set where possible

34 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September CLDs for digital resources Some description of aggregates of resources –use of general metadata schemas (e.g. DC, GILS) –application-specific, protocol-specific approaches Evolution of approaches to creating digital collections –proof of concept (technological focus?) –greater attention to custodianship, use –focus on integration, reuse, interoperability, sustainability –(Cole 2002, Besser 2002) Integration requires shared conventions for talking about collections –growing interest in collection-level metadata

35 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September CLDs in museums Focus on description of (unique, physical) object –for management more than discovery? But notion of collection is used –collection management –collection mapping/assessment Various criteria –type/form of item –subject –ownership/source Some CLD (maybe not called CLD…!) –e.g. guides to holdings, directories

36 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September CLDs in museums Little standardisation? –some use of Dublin Core MES (CIMI testbed) –some use of Encoded Archival Description DTD (NHM) –some use of RSLP CD schema –Crossroads (West Mids) –Find It In London Regional collection mapping exercises –West Midlands, South-West Region –growing interest in –sharing data within profession –using data to support disclosure as well as management Resource Framework for Collections Management

37 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September CLDs in museums A few examples…. FENSCORE (Natural Science collections) –http://fenscore.man.ac.uk/http://fenscore.man.ac.uk/ Directories including CLD –http://www.24hourmuseum.org.uk/http://www.24hourmuseum.org.uk/ –http://www.cornucopia.org.uk/http://www.cornucopia.org.uk/ –http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/ –http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/http://www.english-heritage.org.uk/ Some RSLP projects include CLD for museum resources –http://www.rascal.ac.uk/http://www.rascal.ac.uk/ –http://www.mappingwales.ac.uk/http://www.mappingwales.ac.uk/ –http://scone.strath.ac.uk/http://scone.strath.ac.uk/

38 Applying collection-level description

39 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Collection-level description & Research Support Libraries Programme Support for academic researchers –disclosure of collections –discovery of/access to collections –collaborative management of collections Collections in RSLP –projects describing primarily collections of physical items (library/archive) –projects also describing digital catalogues (which describe physical items) –collections of metadata records Projects have created subject-based or regional databases of CLDs

40 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Collection-level description & the JISC Information Environment Content made available as collections –various content providers Physical collections –of physical resources (e.g. books, journals) Digital collections –of digital resources (texts, images, multimedia objects, software, datasets, learning objects etc) –of digital metadata records –describing physical items, digital items, physical collections Users access content through services

41 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Using Collections in the JISC Information Environment HTML Web sites –Aimed at human reader not software tool –Different user interfaces, different metadata schemas –Researcher joins up services manually The portal solution –task/user-centred –single point of access to range of heterogeneous network services The IE service registry –Database of collection-level descriptions, service descriptions

42 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September End-user is automatically presented with relevant resources through relevant channels User Profiles The service registry in the Information Environment The vision…. Collection Description Service Description Service Registry Web Content Portal End-user

43 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Surveying the landscape CLD not a substitute for item-level description –complementing item-level discovery –enabling item-level discovery (JISC IE) –CLD as achievable goal? RSLP CD schema for simple, high-level CLD –Useful for museums? CLDs support survey of information landscape –to identify areas rather than specific features - to identify rainforest rather than to retrieve an analysis of the canopy fauna of the Amazon basin (Heaney, 2000) The navigator of the landscape may be a human researcher or a software tool

44 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September Acknowledgements UKOLN is funded by Resource: the Council for Museums, Archives and Libraries, the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) of the UK higher and further education funding councils, as well as by project funding from the JISC and the European Union. UKOLN also receives support from the University of Bath where it is based.

45 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September References Lorcan Dempsey, Metadata in a distributed environment : interoperability as recombinant potential, Keynote Paper, OCLC/SCURL New Directions in Metadata conference, August 2002 Andy Powell,ed. Collection Level Description: A Review of Existing Practice (Aug1999) Michael Heaney, An Analytical Model of Collections and their Catalogues (Jan 2000) Tony Gill, Stephen Stead, Matthew Stiff, Definition of the CIDOC object-oriented Conceptual Reference Model v (Jul 2002)

46 mda Conference, Edgbaston, 6 September References Howard Besser, The Next Stage: Moving from Isolated Digital Collections to Interoperable Digital Libraries, First Monday, Vol 7 No 6 (June 2002) Tim Cole, Creating a Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections, First Monday, Vol 7 No 5 (May 2002) Clifford Lynch, Digital Collections, Digital Libraries, and the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information, First Monday, Vol 7 No 5 (May 2002) Digital Library Forum, A Framework of Guidance for Building Good Digital Collections. IMLS. (November 2001) Andy Powell and Liz Lyon, The JISC Information Environment Architecture, 2001


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