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Ethics A3: Conflicts, Ethics and Web Sites: Part 2 David Lomas

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1 Ethics A3: Conflicts, Ethics and Web Sites: Part 2 David Lomas

2 Ethics Are personal –or social group –or organisational –are shared value systems Usually unwritten Are within the law for the law abiding About: mutual respect and fairness Statement: I am neither an expert on ethics nor ethical behaviour - Im just posing the questions

3 Ethics - Who cares? Students –prospective, current, alumni Staff –prospective, current Business partners and sponsors Government(s)

4 Allegedly Unethical Firms (12) McDonalds (12) Microsoft (15) Monsonta (25) Nestle (10) Nike (3) Walmart (17) See:

5 An Example - Ethical Banking - The Co-operative Bank Human Rights Arms trade Trade and Social Involvement Ecological Impact Animal Welfare Customer Consultation –on their ethical policy See:

6 Ethical Banking - The Co- operative Bank - the words Human Rights: –We will not invest of provide financial services to: any regime or organisation that oppresses the human spirit or takes away the rights of the individual manufacturers or torture equipment or other equipment that is used in the violation of human rights Arms trade: –We will not invest of provide financial services to: manufacture, sale, licenced production, brokerage of armaments to any country which has an oppressive regime

7 Ethical Retailing: The Body Shop Profit and Conscience Trading charter: We aim to achieve commercial success by meeting our customers needs the provision of high quality, good value products with exceptional service and relevant information which enables customers to make informed and responsible choices. We aim to ensure that the human and civil rights,... are respected throughout our business activities. See:

8 And theres more... The ethical hacker The £3.8m award from BAT to a UK University Quote: Evidence is mounting that behaviour and buying power are affected by ethical behaviour... a recent study says 30 percent - have chosen to boycott because of a companies ethical stance. Irene Inskip, Corporate Edge Source:

9 So what do you think? Are ethical policies and statements desirable or necessary? We have disclaimers, why not have positive statements? Are these policies transferable to our environment: in HE? to our web sites? to the sites our users visit? should we censor? Who would own/enforce such a policy at my HE?

10 Subliminal Images and the Cookie Monster A3: Conflicts, Ethics and Web Sites: Part 3

11 Subliminal Images: Definition A subliminal image is a fleetingly shown image that registers with the subconscious but not the conscious.

12 Subliminal Images and TV Advertising - e.g. Gore a rat? 2000 Presidential campaign the Republicans ran a TV advert. These words flash on the screen: The Gore prescription plan: Bureaucrats decide. As the voice-over says: bureaucrats decide the word RATS in large, white capital letters, fills the black screen. Description taken from:

13 The Rat Ad - non-subliminal

14 Jiscmail discussion: Subliminal Images #1 discussion hottest topic in January 2001 (27 messages) initial request from dept psychology asking How do I include a subliminal image in a web page? as part of a psychological experiment.

15 Jiscmail messages 2 to 13 Java too slow, what about flash? Caching may spoil it; Cant control times of less than a second; Try flash; Flash isnt that difficult; Agreed it aint too difficult; Use Director; Use an animated gif; Try flash; Try javascript and Flash with Animation Shop; Remember to have animated gif on viewable screen; Use Lingo (Directors scripting language); Use Flash.

16 Jiscmail messages 14 to 22 Am I the only one whos hoping that there is no reliable method of generating subliminal pages from a web page? Try this one for size Agreed, there shouldnt be an easy way of including subliminal images in a web page; Thank you; Use SMIL, but think about the ethics Thank you, it was raised in our ethics committee; If you dont care about ethics - checkout porn sites and see how its done! Heres a javascript. Theres a problem with Netscape and the javascript

17 Jiscmail messages 23 to 32 Dont worry, no-one reads web screens anyway, even subliminally. ;-) Id be concerned about the escape of this technology - is there an equivalent AdBuster? Heres another demo; I like your demo. :-) Dont view porn sites - remember the JANET AUP Is the AUP effective? Ask for permission first before visiting porn sites. A warning about combining pornography and subliminal images.

18 What the ITC states ITC Code of AdvertisingStandards & Practice: `Subliminal Advertising 7. No advertisement may include any technical device which, by using images of very brief duration or by any means, exploits, the possibility of conveying a message to, or otherwise influencing the minds of, members of an audience without their being aware, or fully aware, of what has been done.

19 So... Would you: –Encourage/discourage the use of Subliminal Images on our site(s)? –How would you deal with it if discovered? –Can we detect/stop its use? –Most of us have disclaimers: Would you favour ethical statements? What we we call them? What would they cover?

20 The Cookie Monster Conflicts, Ethics and Web Sites

21 Cookies are: Information for future use stored by the server on the client; Typically a cookie records your preferences when using a particular site; Location of cookie is dependent on the browser Commonly used to rotate the banner ads so that you dont see the same ads Used to remember place in a CBL course

22 More about cookies Users can: –Disable cookies in their browser –Delete cookies from their disk Cookies expire after a preset time Not reliable –Dont make your site rely on them

23 The DoubleClick cookie DoubleClick Inc is a leading internet advertising company DC operates banner ad servers DC wants to target its ads by profiling users DC has accumulated more than 100million files DoubleClick purchased Abacus Direct Corp - a direct marketing services company that maintains a database of purchasing habits of 90% of US households. (

24 The DoubleClick cookie: It works like this (I think): The first time you use a DoubleClicks ad- serving computer, it sends a cookie to your PC with a unique ID number when you click on a banner-ad; Every time you clickthru a DoubleClick ad, the URL is matched up with your previous visits; When you e-shop at a DoubleClick partner site, then the unique ID is matched to personal details.

25 So how should we deal with cookies? How should we deal with cookies? Does your web sites use them? –How do you use them? Is it OK to use cookies providing: –its used as a placemarker from previous visits –information is collected and collated. Be upfront...

26 An Ethical Statement This site utilises cookie technology. Small amounts of information will be held on your machine to enable the site to recognise you throughout the purchasing and shopping basket process. This information will NOT be available to other web sites on the internet and no credit card or address details are held this way.

27 And theres more Conflicts, Ethics and Web Sites

28 Advertising on your web site Should we host? Do we need to - are there financial imperatives? Does it pay? Where is the content delivered from? (JANET AUP)? Where does sponsorship stop and advertizing begin? Whats the model? (Free service or payment?)

29 Advertising - We do it already! We use the web to promote our institution We have: –mouse mats –screen savers –propriety hardware and software –links to external sites with advertizing

30 Advertizing Content What does it say about the site? Do we have content control? Do we want content control? How do we exert control? Censorship vs Freedom of speech Who/What determines what we see? Do we need, yet another, policy for our web sites?

31 More food for thought Use of metatags to entice surfers Logs - how should we use them Browser View Source facilities Exclusion of users: –those with low spec browsers/PCs –through (poor) design. University freedom of speech policies Student Union web sites

32 And so... Do you have content guidelines? How do you enforce content guidelines? Is there a procedure at your site for the (rapid) removal of content?

33 And Finally Ethical Statements, their value: –They remind us what were about. –Once set, we know where we stand. –Our surfers (can) know where we stand. They emphasise that were honest, legal and decent.

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