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A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Digital Preservation Brian Kelly UKOLN University of Bath Bath,

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Presentation on theme: "A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Digital Preservation Brian Kelly UKOLN University of Bath Bath,"— Presentation transcript:

1 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk Web 1.0, Web 2.0 and Digital Preservation Brian Kelly UKOLN University of Bath Bath, UK UKOLN is supported by: About This Talk A recap of Web preservation challenges and approaches to the preservation of Web content. But will use of Web 2.0 services lead to new preservation concerns? How much of a concern is this? And what steps can be taken to minimise the risks of data loss? About This Talk A recap of Web preservation challenges and approaches to the preservation of Web content. But will use of Web 2.0 services lead to new preservation concerns? How much of a concern is this? And what steps can be taken to minimise the risks of data loss? This work is licensed under a Attribution- NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.5 licence (but note caveat) Resources bookmarked using ' sharing-made-simple ' tag

2 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 2 Contents Whats the Problem? Disappearing domains Disappearing data Broken services Preservation and Web 1.0 Case studies Mothballing Preservation and Web 2.0 Third party services Communications rather than resources

3 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 3 Is Web Site Preservation An Issue? Digital Resources Don't Rot Digital resources (images, video, software, Web sites, …) don't degrade due to environmental factors. This is a key difference with physical resources. Web sites are made from various digital resources: HTML pages, GIF, JPEG, etc. image files, PDF resources, software (scripts, JavaScript, etc.) These won't degrade so why is Web site preservation an issue? Isn't the fact that old Web sites won't disappear and may be embarrassing more of a challenge? The Problem

4 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 4 Digital Resources Do Rot! In fact digital resource do 'rot': Operating systems are upgraded and existing applications case to work Security holes are identified and there is a need to install patches Resources may be dependent on external resources (e.g. links, news feeds, …) which may disappear Resources may be hosted by external services and there is a need for ongoing funding for the hosting … The Problem

5 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 5 Preservation In A Web 1.0 World The Web 1.0 environment: Static content Managed by organisation The challenges: Changes in funding Mothballing Legal issues (not covered!) … Web 1.0

6 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 6 The Nightmare Scenario To be avoided: The funding finishes Project staff leave, partnership dissolves Hosting agency upgrades operating system, resulting in scripts to access resources from backend database are broken User finds page with invitation to project launch and travels to meeting. Unfortunately the event took place in 2002 Invoice for domain name is not paid, as administrator has left Web site domain taken over by porn company Prime Minister picks up pen containing project URL and visits pornographic Web site Web 1.0

7 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 7 It Has Happened Webtechs.com Software company which hosted early HTML validation service In 1998/99 confusion over payment of domain name March 1999 company receives many messages saying validation service is now a porn site Over 30,000 links to Web site! Sept 1999 porn company agrees to sell domain name back to Webtech Web 1.0

8 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 8 Technical Issues Standards And Formats Has the Web site been designed using open standards, which should help future-proofing? Have proprietary formats been used (for which backwards compatibility may not be considered) Architecture & Implementation Has the technical architecture of the Web site been documented? Can I continue to use technical systems after funding has finished Web 1.0 Note that in reality content owners may have little control over the formats used and the technical architecture.

9 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 9 Content Issues Accuracy: Is the content of my Web site accurate today – and tomorrow Could the content of my Web site be misleading Usability: Are links working today – and tomorrow Legal: Is my Web site legal today (accessibility; copyright; defamation; IPR; …)? Will my Web site be legal tomorrow, if new legislation is enacted? Web 1.0 Note that in reality rather than necessarily taking a safe position over, say, legal issues, a risk assessment approach may be taken

10 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 10 Mothballing Your Web Site (1) Before funding finishes you should take steps for the mothballing of your Web site: Run a link check across the Web site. Fix broken internal links and as many external links as is reasonable. Document the link report. Run HTML (and CSS) validation checks across the Web site. Fix as many invalid pages as is reasonable. Document the findings. Run an accessibility check across the Web site. Fix as many inaccessible pages as is reasonable. Document the findings. This should not be an onerous task if you have following best practices. Note that errors found later occurred after your funding finished. Web 1.0

11 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 11 Mothballing Your Web Site (2) You should also address technical areas: Remove any backend scripts which are no longer needed (e.g. online booking forms for old events). Remember that scripts, etc. are liable to go wrong. Ensure that applications are configured to break gracefully and provide meaningful errors: The config.ssi is missing. This should be reported to the systems administrator ( or ring Please provide the URL of the broken page and the project name) Apache error 6963 Web 1.0

12 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 12 This Web site is no longer maintained. See home page for details Mothballing Your Web Site (3) You should also address the content of your Web site: Clarify the status of the Web site on the home page. Ensure the tense of the content reflects the position i.e. don't say "This project will …" Ensure that contact details will remain valid i.e. provide generic addresses not an individuals Remember that many users will arrive deep in your Web site (e.g. using Google). If necessary use CSS to flag all pages with a watermark See Web 1.0

13 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 13 Case Study 1 - Exploit Interactive Exploit Interactive: EU-funded ejournal available at Funded from Jan 1999 – Dec 2000 Web site is still hosted locally Issues: Should we continue hosting domain after 3 years? What is the cost of this (domain name registration, disk storage, system maintenance)? Web 1.0

14 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 14 Case Study - Exploit Interactive Findings: Disk storage is 4Gb (large proportion is log files) A 30 Gb disk drive costs ~ £40 It was decide to run an annual link check of the Web site. Although there were broken links to external sites, the internal links all worked. It was estimated that it would take about 30 minutes / year to run a link check and document findings. A policy for the ongoing provision of the Web site was agreed See Web 1.0

15 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 15 Is Web 2.0 Different? Implications of Web 2.0 for Web site preservation: Use of 3 rd party services (network as platform) Content collaboration and communication Richer diversity of services (not just a file on a filestore/CMS/database) More complex IPR issues Lets look at: Case study 1 - wikis Case study 2 – blogs Case study 3 – reusing data Case study 4 – comms tools Case study 5 – recording events Case study 6 – Slideshare Case study 7 – Use of video tools Case study 8 – social networks Web 2.0

16 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 16 Case Study 1: A Public Wiki WetPaint wiki used to support UKOLN workshop Approaches taken: Open access to all prior to & during event (to minimise barriers to creating content) Access restricted to WetPaint users after event Access later restricted to event organisers Web 2.0 Many aspects of Web site curation are to do with implementing such best practices, rather than implementing technical solutions

17 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 17 Case Study 1: A Public Wiki WetPaint provides an option for backing up data. A zipped file of the pages can be saved for storing on a locally managed service. Web 2.0 There are limitations in this particular service (poor quality HTML, internal links dont work, …) But this does illustrate an approach which can be taken.

18 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 18 Case Study 2a: Blog Migration How might you migrate the contents of a blog (e.g. youre leaving college)? This question was raised by Casey Leaver, shortly before leaving Warwick University Web 2.0

19 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 19 Web 2.0 Case Study 2a: Blog Migration She migrated her blog from blogs at Warwick Univ to Wordpress Note, though, that not all data was transferred (e.g. title, but not contents) so theres a need to check transfer mechanisms

20 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 20 Case Study 2a: Blog Migration A backup of UK Web Focus blog is available on Vox: Manual migration of new posts every few weeks Only migrates text Doesnt migrate images, embedded videos, internal links, comments, … Web 2.0 Migration of blogs, wikis, etc. is not currently an easy task

21 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 21 Case Study 2b: The Individuals Blog (1) Auricle blog: Launched Jan 2004 by head of e- learning team, Bath High profile & public visibility by early adopter & evangelist Today: Its gone Lost after evangelist left, new staff arrive, new priorities, … Thoughts?

22 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 22 Case Study 2b: The Individuals Blog (2) Auricle reborn: Further Google revealed the blog has been reborn New domain (www.auricle.org/) New engine (Wordpress) & look and feel (but old engine still available) New content being added Old content still accessible Thoughts?

23 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 23 Case Study 3: Reusing Data Blog post in Facebook. Possible concerns: Its not sustainable Youve given ownership to Facebook Web 2.0 Response: The post is managed in WordPress; Fb displays copy (to new audience) Fb dont claim ownership – they claim rights to make money (e.g. through ads)

24 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 24 Case Study 4: Disposable Data Twitter – example of a micro- blogging application Facebook status messages is another related example Web 2.0 Issues: Is the Twitter service will sustainable over a long period? What will happen to the data? What about the IPR for tweets? …

25 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 25 Case Study 4: Disposable Data Web 2.0 Many twitterers regard their tweets as disposal I tend to use Twitter as a virtual water cooler – sharing gossip, jokes and occasional work- related information with (mainly) people I know You could make use of clients which manage your tweets (e.g. treat like ) But you should develop your policies first, prior to exploring technologies

26 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 26 Web 2.0 Case Study 4: Disposable Data Skype (or your preferred VoIP application) are growing in popularity Issues: Is the digital data (the call) preserved? What about the video and the IM chats? Possible responses: Am I bovvered? I didnt bother with analogue phones, why should I worry now?

27 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 27 Case Study 5: Digitized Talks Seminar on Open Science given at UKOLN in Feb Video clip of opening 10 mins taken & uploaded to YouTube Issues: Privacy Quality Benefits Long term access Benefits identified – now how do we seek to deploy recordings of seminars, conferences, etc. on a more systematic basis? This is work in progress – but see IWMW 2007 videos Benefits identified – now how do we seek to deploy recordings of seminars, conferences, etc. on a more systematic basis? This is work in progress – but see IWMW 2007 videos

28 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 28 Case Study 6: Slideshare What happens to your slides if Slideshare disappears? My approach: Master copy held on managed environment Info on master on title slide and metadata CC licence & download available – many copies

29 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 29 Case Study 7 – Video Tools Requirement: Provide brief video clips for colleagues running workshop Initial idea – use Seesmic video micro-blogging service (can include video responses) But: No video export function (yet) Accessibility of responses Approach taken: Create video locally Upload video to YouTube (to allow textual comments) Link to managed master file Seesmic and YouTube Web sites and Twirl client are access tools; the data is managed elsewhere

30 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 30 Case Study 8: Social Networks University of Wales, Newport and University of Bradford have set up Ning networks for supporting their students: Bradford: Aimed at students during their first term at University Newport: Open Intended for students about to arrive at institution What does preservation mean in this context? Answers to this question will be left as an exercise for the participants

31 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 31 What Do We Do For SNs? The Open University has a presence in Facebook. On 9 Sep 2008: 9,785 fans 1,233 wall posts 138 discussion topics Is anyone: Recording the history? Curating the data Managing possible risks? Web 2.0

32 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 32 Role Of The Internet Archive Can we leave everything to the Internet Archive (IA)? Has role to play in Web 1.0 Seems to archive some public blogs May not access images or other embedded content Still has limitations (cf. UCE/BCU) Cant access, e.g., Facebook pages Web 2.0 IA is a 3 rd party Web 2.0 service

33 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 33 The Research Challenges Some thoughts: Preservation of Web sites in known to be difficult Additional difficulties in a Web 2.0 world Complexities include technical challenges and business issues However: Is avoiding Web 2.0 a realistic answer? There may be some simple processes which may help Web 2.0

34 A centre of expertise in digital information managementwww.ukoln.ac.uk 34 Questions


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