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Dublin Core for Museums Day 1 Paul Miller UK Office for Library & Information Networking Thomas Hofmann Australian Museums On- Line.

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Presentation on theme: "Dublin Core for Museums Day 1 Paul Miller UK Office for Library & Information Networking Thomas Hofmann Australian Museums On- Line."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dublin Core for Museums Day 1 Paul Miller UK Office for Library & Information Networking Thomas Hofmann Australian Museums On- Line CIMI John Perkins

2 Overview for Thursday March 25 Introduction to Metadata Introducing the Dublin Core CIMI DC Guidelines - Dublin Core for Museums Break DC for museums continued... Lunch Practicalities of Implementing DC Break Introduction to MICI

3 Whats the Problem ? Need to serve a Web audience Demand for content Uncertain quality Expectations for rapid easy access Need to be visible on the Web Two million web sites Half a billion addressable pages Many communities with the same problem

4 Whats the Problem ? Manage and organise interconnected data Different types Different repositories Packages Interoperate with other communities Interoperate with other applications Need a way to: Express meanings in rich and complex data Express the structure of our data Encode the transfer of data

5 Whats the Solution ? Communities address their own needs Do so in a way that works across communities Standards based Collaborative

6 What is a Community? Libraries MARC AACR2 A resource description community is characterised by agreed semantic, structural and syntactic conventions for exchange of descriptive information Based on a slide by Stu Weibel Museums SPECTRUM MICI

7 Scientific Databases Museums GeoLibraries Internet Commons Home Pages Commerce Whatever... Based on a slide by Stu Weibel Communities working together

8 Metadata Museums Metadata Based on a slide by Stu Weibel Communities working together Metadata

9 What is Metadata? Meaningless jargon or a fashionable term for what weve always done or a means of turning data into information and data about data and the name of a film director (Luc Besson) and the title of a book (The Lord of the Flies).

10 What is Metadata? Metadata exists for almost anything People Places Objects Concepts Databases Web pages

11 What is Metadata? Metadata fulfils three main functions: description of resource content What is it? description of resource form How is it constructed? description of issues behind resource use Can I afford it?.

12 What is Metadata? Many structures have evolved at different levels, and to meet different requirements... MICI

13 For human communication we need... Semantic Interoperability Structural Interoperability Syntactic Interoperability Lets talk English Standardisation of content Standardisation of form Heres how to make a sentence Standardisation of expression These are the rules of grammar cat milk sat drank mat Cat sat on mat. Drank milk. The cat sat on the mat. It drank some milk.

14 Challenges Many flavours of metadata which one do I use? Managing change new varieties, and evolution of existing forms Tension between functionality and simplicity, extensibility and interoperability Functions, features, and cool stuff Simplicity and interoperability Opportunities

15 Introducing the Dublin Core An attempt to improve resource discovery on the Web now adopted more broadly Building an interdisciplinary consensus about a core element set for resource discovery simple and intuitive cross–disciplinary international flexible.

16 Introducing the Dublin Core 15 elements of descriptive metadata All elements optional All elements repeatable The whole is extensible offering a starting point for semantically richer descriptions Interdisciplinary libraries, museums, government, education... International available in 20 languages, with more on the way.

17 Introducing the Dublin Core u Title u Creator u Subject u Description u Publisher u Contributor u Date u Type u Format u Identifier u Source u Language u Relation u Coverage u Rights

18 Extending DC (semantic refinement) Creator First Name Surname Contact Info Affiliation Based on a slide by Stu Weibel Improve descriptive precision by adding sub–structure (subelements and schemes) Greater precision = lesser interoperability Should dumb down gracefully Element qualifierValue qualifier

19 Extending DC (a modular approach) Modular extensibility... additional elements to support local needs complementary packages of metadata …but only if we get the building blocks right DescriptionArchival Management Terms & Conditions Based on a slide by Stu Weibel

20 Extending DC? DC offers a semantic framework through use of further substructure, meaning can often be clarified John John Inc. ? John xyz ? xyz John ? John John Inc. John xyz xyz John.

21 Extending DC? DC offers a semantic framework Use of domain–specific schemes greatly increases precision Washington Washington State ? Washington DC ? Washington monument ? Washington Washington State Washington DC Washington monument North and Central America, United States, Washington

22 Dublin Core originally designed with electronic resources in mind Physical resources are fundamentally different Issues of surrogacy become more important Genre, Type, and Format models vary greatly Difficult to remember what is being described, and which characteristics of the resource and its surrogates are correct. Dublin Core in the physical world

23 Aspects of the real world are key to much of what museums do Physical objects have dimensions 23 x 46 cm 12 x 52 x 18 in 18.6 cm pages Physical objects have a form oil on canvas Tadcaster limestone stainless steel. Introducing Physical Objects

24 Physical objects change over time constructed between AD 524 and 873 repaired in AD 1270 incorporated into ornamental arch in AD 1320 Physical objects move cast in Beijing used in Shanghai taken to Hong Kong on display in Macau. Introducing Physical Objects

25 Physical objects are associated with people written by William Shakespeare acquired by Lord Elgin decreed by the Emperor Hadrian associated with Prince Charles Edward Stuart Physical objects are contextualised fired at the Battle of Trafalgar carried on Apollo 11 from the moon printed on the first printing press salvaged from the Titanic. Introducing Physical Objects

26 Museum objects, whether original or surrogate, are normally part of a collection Collections may be real... the Sutton Hoo hoard the Terracotta Warriors...an aspect of the process by which objects enter the museum... the Burrell Collection Solomon Guggenheims art collection …or simply practical coins at the British Museum the Tate Gallerys collection of works by Da Vinci. Introducing Collections

27 Many of the resources we describe are, in reality, surrogates for something else a photograph of King Tutankhamens death mask a photograph of a statue of George Washington a film of President Kennedys assassination a sound recording of Neil Armstrongs One small step for man… speech on the moon a copy of the Mona Lisa a model of the Great Wall of China a reproduction of the Terracotta warriors. Introducing Surrogacy

28 Many of the resources we describe are, in reality, surrogates for something else we need to be clear whether we are describing the resource or its surrogate the sculptor of a statue is often not the person who made its photographic surrogate the model of the Forbidden City is unlikely to have been created at the same date as the Forbidden City itself the format of a computer image of the Mona Lisa (image/jpeg ?)is not the same as the format of the original painting (oil on canvas ?). Issues of Surrogacy

29 Museums need to describe real objects and surrogates in a similar manner guidelines/standards therefore need to encompass both, despite their differences Resource descriptions will often be drawn from existing collection management systems in the first instance, rather than created afresh guidelines therefore need to respect existing practices within established systems There is often no right answer so practices need to allow for approximate dates, multiple possible creators, etc. Other Museum Issues

30 The broader Dublin Core community is tackling some of the problems relevant to museums Their work on the 1:1 Principle is especially useful in resolving museum issues over original versus surrogate and item versus collection: each Dublin Core record should describe only one resource, whether surrogate or original. Associated resources should be linked together by means of the Relation element in Dublin Core. Introducing the 1:1 Principle

31 In a record describing a photo of the Mona Lisa on a web page, for example… Leonardo da Vinci is not the creator of the image The image was not created during the Renaissance …but you might include these as Subject terms, and you could usefully provided a link to the record describing the real painting via Dublin Cores Relation element Equally, in describing the painting itself… is not the Identifier of the painting but you might link to this image via Relation, just to show people what the painting looks like. Introducing the 1:1 Principle

32 In describing museum objects, it is often most useful to first decide what you are describing and why, rather than beginning with who made it and what is it called, as is often the case with books if you know youre describing a surrogate of the Mona Lisa, then you know Leonardo da Vinci is not the Creator; whoever made the surrogate is if you know youre describing a collection of 20th century paintings, then you know that Picasso, Hockney et al are not the Creators; the collector is. The primacy of Type

33 if you know youre describing the Sutton Hoo helmet, then the fact that it was added to a particular museum collection in 1939 perhaps doesnt matter; that information is better placed in the collection record if you know youre describing a natural specimen, then perhaps it has no Creator; there may be a creator associated with its identification or collection, though. The primacy of Type

34 In applying Dublin Core to museums, we are making certain basic assumptions, many of which were tested by CIMI DC is appropriate for use in describing both physical and digital resources DC is easy to learn and simple to use Information can be meaningfully and efficiently extracted from existing museum systems in order to populate DC records the creation of a DC record to describe a museum object is cost–effective, and aids the discovery of resources more than simply allowing access to the underlying Collection Management system might. Dublin Core for Museums: Assumptions

35 Practicalities of Implementing Dublin Core Paul Miller Uk Office for Library & Information Networking Thomas Hofmann Australian Museums On-Line

36 Overview Creation and Maintenance Harvesting and Distribution Retrieval Implementation Models Case Study

37 Dublin Core - Refresher 15 simple elements Focus on Resource Discovery not Resource Description One Dublin Core record per resource Interoperable across communities Can be easy populated from existing databases Can be formatted in XML/ RDF or HTML

38 When should I use Dublin Core? You have a rich standard, need simpler one You want to disclose your data to other communities using commonly understood semantics You want to provide unified access to databases with different underlying schemas You need core description semantics and dont feel compelled to invent them anew

39 Considerations Harvesting/ Distribution tools Creation and Maintenance tools educate Retrieval tools consensus interface design

40 Creating and Maintaining Dublin Core Metadata

41 Encoding Dublin Core HTML Unqualified Easy Qualified Overloaded Content (HTML 3.2) Additional Attribute (HTML 4) RDF Based on XML Sophisticated More complex

42 Encoding Dublin Core - Unqualified

43 Encoding Dublin Core - Qualified (HTML 3.2)

44 Encoding Dublin Core - Qualified (HTML 4)

45 Encoding Dublin Core - Sub-Elements

46 Encoding Dublin Core - RDF –03–25

47 Example Tool: DC Dot Semi-automated generation of Dublin Core Cut and past into document Conversions to HTML, SOIF, XML, WHOIS++, USMARC, GILS

48 Example Tool: DC Dot Screenshot of

49 Example Tool: DC Dot Screenshots of DC Dot output

50 Example Tool: Reggie Generic creation tool for any metadata schema published to metadata.net Currently supports: Dublin Core in 5 languages Syntax: HTML META tags (V3.2 and 4.0), RDF

51 Example Tool: Reggie Screenshot of Reggie

52 Example Tool: Site Generator Tool which parses local web site and automatically creates Dublin Core metadata Syntax: HTML JAVA based tool which requires JDK 1.1

53 Further Information - Creation and Maint. Metadata Creation Tools General METADATA PAGE AT UKOLN METAWEB TagGen SE User Guides Official User Guide for Simple Dublin Core CIMI Guide to Best Practice: Dublin Core

54 Harvesting and Distributing Dublin Core Metadata

55 Harvesting / Distribution Tools Z39.50 Gateway Metadata Harvester Full-text Search Engine Resources Indexing, harvesting tools Z

56 Searching and Retrieving Dublin Core Metadata

57 Retrieval Tools HTML - search forms HTML - predefined queries Z39.50 clients/ Java applets Standalone applications Interface design Assist users: -help them to understand what they are looking for -give them an idea what terminologies you are using -use commonly understood design language

58 Bringing it all together: Implementation Models

59 Implementation Models Harvesting DC into a repository (database) Distributed Database Search Full-text indexing with metadata extraction

60 Implementation Models Harvesting DC into a repository (database) HTML XML Other types Repository HarvesterQuery Dynamic document creation from database retrieve resource

61 Implementation Models Distributed Database Search Z39.50 Server Z39.50 Gateway Query retrieve resource

62 Implementation Models Full-text indexing with metadata extraction Indexer Index DB Query HTML XML Other types Dynamic document creation from database retrieve resource

63 Questions before implementation Do I really need Dublin Core? What is my budget? What type of resources do I want to describe? Which encoding format for which resource? Do I have community support? Can I provide creation tools?

64 Challenges of implementing Dublin Core Intellectual Education of information creators Community consensus Resistance against sharing information Technical Efficient tools Infrastructure Economical Automatic generation vs. manual creation Cost of training Cost of tools

65 Dublin Core for Masses?

66 Dublin Core for the masses Why Dublin Core hasnt hit the consumer market yet No killer application Lack of standardisation No support in public search engines No support in mass market applications Non transparent applications Inefficient handling in HTML

67 Further Information Projects Official Dublin Core web site Mailing lists Dublin Core Implementors workgroup Mailing list

68 Case Study: AMOL

69 Case Study AMOL (1) Gateway to Australian Museums and Galleries Initial idea: One central access point for all Australian collections Creation of AMOL standard record for object data due to lack of common standards 8 basic field with focus on resource discovery and easy deployment from within existing databases Fields: Object Title, Object Name, Creator, Description, Item ID, KeySearchTerms, Date/DateRange, Associated Places

70 Case Study AMOL (2) AMOL search/ system architecture - current system User queries search engine and gets records delivered to web browser Remote web server storing HMTL documents Legacy DB HTML documents Mapped metadata exported AMOL index server

71 Case Study AMOL (3) Data and technology related Lack of consistent use of controlled vocabularies, quality of data recorded Performance of indexing software, lack of metadata support in public search engines high administration efforts Intellectual Users have problems with empty text box approach Limited information in record to see context with larger picture General Large institutions: bureaucratic machinery, complex collection systems designed without interoperability in mind Small institutions: concerned about security issues, fear of larger institutions Lessons Learned

72 Case Study AMOL (4) New resource types: Information about institutions, Images, Video, Audio, general HTML pages - goes beyond capabilities of standard AMOL record Need to provide easier access for users New cross community projects require interoperable metadata standards for cross domain searching Strong move in Australia towards Dublin Core based metadata schemas driven by government Strong move towards interpretation of objects through stories Search Architecture and extended AMOL metadata standard New perspectives

73 Case Study AMOL (5) NEW AMOL search/ system architecture User queries search engine and gets records delivered to web browser AMOL index server Remote web server Providing dynamic access to ODBC databases Legacy databases Textual resources AV resources Information mapped to DC based metadata plus index text, images

74 Case Study AMOL (6) Future Directions Implementation of RDF for dynamically served databases and text style resources Consensus of community: Metadata Forum Further education of users: Metadata Workshops Creation of multi-type metadata schema based on Dublin Core Creation of mapping tools for easier database implementation

75 Case Study AMOL (7) Recommendations Prepare good user guides Run workshops and educate museum professionals Get consensus from community Plan with interoperability in mind Evaluate tools and plan for future additions Biggest Problem still remaining: what is the benefit to the individual institution other than being interoperable for networked resources

76 Dublin Core for Masses?

77 Dublin Core for the masses Why Dublin Core hasnt hit the consumer market yet No killer application Lack of standardisation No support in public search engines No support in mass market applications Non transparent applications Inefficient handling in HTML

78 Further Information Projects Official Dublin Core web site Mailing lists Dublin Core Implementors workgroup Mailing list

79

80 For Machine Communication we need.. Semantic Interoperability Structural Interoperability Syntactic Interoperability Lets talk Resource Description Standardisation of content Standardisation of form Lets use MICI Standardisation of expression Heres how to say it in HTML Creator, Publisher.., Field # 1 Element Name


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