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Dublin Core for Museums Day 1

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1 Dublin Core for Museums Day 1
CIMI John Perkins Paul Miller UK Office for Library & Information Networking Thomas Hofmann Australian Museums On-Line

2 Overview for Thursday March 25
Introduction to Metadata Introducing the Dublin Core CIMI DC Guidelines - Dublin Core for Museums Break DC for museums continued... Lunch Practicalities of Implementing DC Introduction to MICI

3 What’s the Problem ? Need to serve a Web audience
Demand for content Uncertain quality Expectations for rapid easy access Need to be visible on the Web Two million web sites Half a billion addressable pages Many communities with the same problem

4 What’s the Problem ? Manage and organise interconnected data
Different types Different repositories Packages Interoperate with other communities Interoperate with other applications Need a way to: Express meanings in rich and complex data Express the structure of our data Encode the transfer of data

5 What’s the Solution ? Communities address their own needs
Do so in a way that works across communities Standards based Collaborative

6 What is a Community? Libraries Museums
A resource description community is characterised by agreed semantic, structural and syntactic conventions for exchange of descriptive information Libraries MARC AACR2 Museums SPECTRUM MICI Based on a slide by Stu Weibel

7 Communities working together
Home Pages Museums Geo Libraries ‘Internet Commons’ Commerce Whatever... Scientific Databases Based on a slide by Stu Weibel

8 Communities working together
Metadata Museums Metadata Metadata Metadata Based on a slide by Stu Weibel

9 What is Metadata? Meaningless jargon
or a fashionable term for what we’ve always done or “a means of turning data into information” and “data about data” and the name of a film director (‘Luc Besson’) and the title of a book (‘The Lord of the Flies’).

10 What is Metadata? Metadata exists for almost anything People Places
Objects Concepts Databases Web pages

11 What is Metadata? Metadata fulfils three main functions:
description of resource content “What is it?” description of resource form “How is it constructed?” description of issues behind resource use “Can I afford it?”.

12 What is Metadata? Many structures have evolved at different levels, and to meet different requirements... MICI

13 For human communication we need...
Semantic Interoperability Standardisation of content “cat milk sat drank mat ” “Let’s talk English” Structural Interoperability Standardisation of form “Here’s how to make a sentence” “Cat sat on mat. Drank milk.” Syntactic Interoperability Standardisation of expression “These are the rules of grammar” “The cat sat on the mat. It drank some milk.”

14 Many flavours of metadata Managing change
Challenges Opportunities Many flavours of metadata which one do I use? Managing change new varieties, and evolution of existing forms Tension between functionality and simplicity, extensibility and interoperability Functions, features, and cool stuff Simplicity and interoperability

15 Introducing the Dublin Core
An attempt to improve resource discovery on the Web now adopted more broadly Building an interdisciplinary consensus about a core element set for resource discovery simple and intuitive cross–disciplinary international flexible.

16 Introducing the Dublin Core
15 elements of descriptive metadata All elements optional All elements repeatable The whole is extensible offering a starting point for semantically richer descriptions Interdisciplinary libraries, museums, government, education... International available in 20 languages, with more on the way.

17 Introducing the Dublin Core
Title Creator Subject Description Publisher Contributor Date Type Format Identifier Source Language Relation Coverage Rights

18 Extending DC (semantic refinement)
Improve descriptive precision by adding sub–structure (subelements and schemes) Element qualifier Value qualifier Greater precision = lesser interoperability Should ‘dumb down’ gracefully Creator First Name Surname Affiliation Contact Info Based on a slide by Stu Weibel

19 Extending DC (a modular approach)
Modular extensibility... additional elements to support local needs complementary packages of metadata …but only if we get the building blocks right Terms & Conditions Description Archival Management Based on a slide by Stu Weibel

20 Extending DC? DC offers a semantic framework
through use of further substructure, meaning can often be clarified John Inc. ? John xyz ? xyz John ? <Creator> “John” John Inc. John xyz xyz John. <Creator> <fore name> “John”

21 Extending DC? DC offers a semantic framework
Use of domain–specific schemes greatly increases precision Washington State ? Washington DC ? Washington monument ? <Coverage> “Washington” Washington State Washington DC Washington monument <Coverage> <TGN> “Washington” “North and Central America, United States, Washington”

22 Dublin Core in the physical world
Dublin Core originally designed with electronic resources in mind Physical resources are fundamentally different Issues of surrogacy become more important Genre, Type, and Format models vary greatly Difficult to remember what is being described, and which characteristics of the resource and its surrogates are ‘correct’.

23 Introducing Physical Objects
Aspects of the real world are key to much of what museums do Physical objects have dimensions 23 x 46 cm 12 x 52 x 18 in 18.6 cm3 823 pages Physical objects have a form oil on canvas Tadcaster limestone stainless steel.

24 Introducing Physical Objects
Physical objects change over time constructed between AD524 and 873 repaired in AD1270 incorporated into ornamental arch in AD1320 Physical objects move cast in Beijing used in Shanghai taken to Hong Kong on display in Macau.

25 Introducing Physical Objects
Physical objects are associated with people written by William Shakespeare acquired by Lord Elgin decreed by the Emperor Hadrian associated with Prince Charles Edward Stuart Physical objects are contextualised fired at the Battle of Trafalgar carried on Apollo 11 from the moon printed on the first printing press salvaged from the Titanic.

26 Introducing Collections
Museum objects, whether original or surrogate, are normally part of a collection Collections may be ‘real’... the Sutton Hoo hoard the Terracotta Warriors ...an aspect of the process by which objects enter the museum... the Burrell Collection Solomon Guggenheim’s art collection …or simply practical coins at the British Museum the Tate Gallery’s collection of works by Da Vinci.

27 Introducing Surrogacy
Many of the resources we describe are, in reality, surrogates for something else a photograph of King Tutankhamen’s death mask a photograph of a statue of George Washington a film of President Kennedy’s assassination a sound recording of Neil Armstrong’s “One small step for man…” speech on the moon a copy of the Mona Lisa a model of the Great Wall of China a reproduction of the Terracotta warriors.

28 Issues of Surrogacy Many of the resources we describe are, in reality, surrogates for something else we need to be clear whether we are describing the resource or its surrogate the sculptor of a statue is often not the person who made its photographic surrogate the model of the Forbidden City is unlikely to have been created at the same date as the Forbidden City itself the format of a computer image of the Mona Lisa (image/jpeg ?)is not the same as the format of the original painting (oil on canvas ?).

29 Other Museum Issues Museums need to describe real objects and surrogates in a similar manner guidelines/standards therefore need to encompass both, despite their differences Resource descriptions will often be drawn from existing collection management systems in the first instance, rather than created afresh guidelines therefore need to respect existing practices within established systems There is often no ‘right’ answer so practices need to allow for approximate dates, multiple possible creators, etc.

30 Introducing the 1:1 Principle
1 : 1 The broader Dublin Core community is tackling some of the problems relevant to museums Their work on the ‘1:1 Principle’ is especially useful in resolving museum issues over original versus surrogate and item versus collection: each Dublin Core ‘record’ should describe only one resource, whether surrogate or original. Associated resources should be linked together by means of the Relation element in Dublin Core.

31 Introducing the 1:1 Principle
1 : 1 In a record describing a photo of the Mona Lisa on a web page, for example… Leonardo da Vinci is not the creator of the image The image was not created during the Renaissance …but you might include these as Subject terms, and you could usefully provided a link to the record describing the real painting via Dublin Core’s Relation element Equally, in describing the painting itself… is not the Identifier of the painting but you might link to this image via Relation, just to show people what the painting looks like.

32 The primacy of ‘Type’ In describing museum objects, it is often most useful to first decide what you are describing and why, rather than beginning with ‘who made it’ and ‘what is it called’, as is often the case with books if you know you’re describing a surrogate of the Mona Lisa, then you know Leonardo da Vinci is not the Creator; whoever made the surrogate is if you know you’re describing a collection of 20th century paintings, then you know that Picasso, Hockney et al are not the Creators; the collector is.

33 The primacy of ‘Type’ if you know you’re describing the Sutton Hoo helmet, then the fact that it was added to a particular museum collection in 1939 perhaps doesn’t matter; that information is better placed in the collection record if you know you’re describing a natural specimen, then perhaps it has no Creator; there may be a ‘creator’ associated with its identification or collection, though.

34 Dublin Core for Museums: Assumptions
In applying Dublin Core to museums, we are making certain basic assumptions, many of which were tested by CIMI DC is appropriate for use in describing both physical and digital resources DC is easy to learn and simple to use Information can be meaningfully and efficiently extracted from existing museum systems in order to populate DC records the creation of a DC record to describe a museum object is cost–effective, and aids the discovery of resources more than simply allowing access to the underlying Collection Management system might.

35 Practicalities of Implementing Dublin Core
Paul Miller Uk Office for Library & Information Networking Thomas Hofmann Australian Museums On-Line

36 Overview Creation and Maintenance Harvesting and Distribution
Retrieval Implementation Models Case Study

37 Dublin Core - Refresher
15 simple elements Focus on Resource Discovery not Resource Description One Dublin Core record per resource Interoperable across communities Can be easy populated from existing databases Can be formatted in XML/ RDF or HTML

38 When should I use Dublin Core?
You have a rich standard, need simpler one You want to disclose your data to other communities using commonly understood semantics You want to provide unified access to databases with different underlying schemas You need core description semantics and don’t feel compelled to invent them anew

39   Considerations  Creation and Maintenance tools educate
Harvesting/ Distribution tools  Retrieval tools consensus interface design

40 Creating and Maintaining Dublin Core Metadata

41 Encoding Dublin Core HTML RDF Unqualified Qualified Based on XML Easy
Overloaded Content (HTML 3.2) Additional Attribute (HTML 4) RDF Based on XML Sophisticated More complex

42 Encoding Dublin Core - Unqualified
<HEAD> <META NAME="DC.TITLE" CONTENT="My Web Page"> <META NAME="DC.Subject" CONTENT="Computers,Metadata"> </HEAD>

43 Encoding Dublin Core - Qualified (HTML 3.2)
<HEAD> <META NAME="DC.Subject" CONTENT="(SCHEME=AAT)(LANG=EN) Statue, Granite"> </HEAD>

44 Encoding Dublin Core - Qualified (HTML 4)
<HEAD> <META NAME="DC.Subject" SCHEME="AAT" LANG="EN" CONTENT="Statue, Granite"> </HEAD>

45 Encoding Dublin Core - Sub-Elements
<HEAD> <META NAME="DC.Date.Created" CONTENT=" (SCHEME=ISO8601) "> <META NAME="DC.Date.Modified" SCHEME="ISO8601" CONTENT="1999–03–25"> </HEAD>

46 Encoding Dublin Core - RDF
... <?xml:namespace href="http://iso.ch/8601/" as="ISO"?> <RDF:RDF> <RDF:Description …> <DC:Date> <RDF:Description> <ISO:date>1999–03–25</ISO:date> </RDF:Description> </DC:Date> </RDF:RDF>

47 Example Tool: DC Dot http://www.ukoln.ac.uk/metadata/dcdot/
Semi-automated generation of Dublin Core Cut and past into document Conversions to HTML, SOIF, XML, WHOIS++, USMARC, GILS

48 Example Tool: DC Dot Screenshot of

49 Example Tool: DC Dot Screenshots of DC Dot output

50 Example Tool: Reggie http://metadata.net
Generic creation tool for any metadata schema published to metadata.net Currently supports: Dublin Core in 5 languages Syntax: HTML META tags (V3.2 and 4.0), RDF

51 Example Tool: Reggie Screenshot of Reggie

52 Example Tool: Site Generator
Tool which parses local web site and automatically creates Dublin Core metadata Syntax: HTML JAVA based tool which requires JDK 1.1

53 Further Information - Creation and Maint.
Metadata Creation Tools General METADATA PAGE AT UKOLN METAWEB TagGen SE User Guides Official User Guide for Simple Dublin Core CIMI Guide to Best Practice: Dublin Core

54 Harvesting and Distributing Dublin Core Metadata


55 Harvesting / Distribution
Tools Z39.50 Gateway Metadata Harvester Full-text Search Engine Resources Indexing, harvesting tools Z

56 Searching and Retrieving Dublin Core Metadata

57 Retrieval Tools Interface design HTML - search forms
HTML - predefined queries Z39.50 clients/ Java applets Standalone applications Interface design Assist users: -help them to understand what they are looking for -give them an idea what terminologies you are using -use commonly understood design language

58 Bringing it all together: Implementation Models


59 Implementation Models
Harvesting DC into a repository (database) Distributed Database Search Full-text indexing with metadata extraction

60 Implementation Models
Harvesting DC into a repository (database) HTML Query Harvester Repository XML Other types Dynamic document creation from database retrieve resource

61 Implementation Models
Distributed Database Search Z39.50 Server Z39.50 Gateway Query retrieve resource

62 Implementation Models
Full-text indexing with metadata extraction HTML Query Indexer Index DB XML Other types Dynamic document creation from database retrieve resource

63 Questions before implementation
Do I really need Dublin Core? What is my budget? What type of resources do I want to describe? Which encoding format for which resource? Do I have community support? Can I provide creation tools?

64 Challenges of implementing Dublin Core
Intellectual Education of information creators Community consensus Resistance against sharing information Technical Efficient tools Infrastructure Economical Automatic generation vs. manual creation Cost of training Cost of tools

65 Dublin Core for Masses?

66 Dublin Core for the masses
Why Dublin Core hasn’t hit the consumer market yet No killer application Lack of standardisation No support in public search engines No support in mass market applications Non transparent applications Inefficient handling in HTML

67 Further Information Projects Official Dublin Core web site Mailing lists Dublin Core Implementors workgroup Mailing list

68 Case Study: AMOL

69 Case Study AMOL (1) Gateway to Australian Museums and Galleries
Initial idea: One central access point for all Australian collections Creation of AMOL standard record for object data due to lack of common standards 8 basic field with focus on resource discovery and easy deployment from within existing databases Fields: Object Title, Object Name, Creator, Description, Item ID, KeySearchTerms, Date/DateRange, Associated Places

70 Case Study AMOL (2) AMOL search/ system architecture - current system Mapped metadata exported User queries search engine and gets records delivered to web browser HTML documents Legacy DB Remote web server storing HMTL documents AMOL index server

71 Case Study AMOL (3) Lessons Learned Data and technology related
Lack of consistent use of controlled vocabularies, quality of data recorded Performance of indexing software, lack of metadata support in public search engines high administration efforts Intellectual Users have problems with “empty text box” approach Limited information in record to see context with larger picture General Large institutions: bureaucratic machinery, complex collection systems designed without interoperability in mind Small institutions: concerned about security issues, fear of larger institutions

72 Case Study AMOL (4) New perspectives
New resource types: Information about institutions, Images, Video, Audio, general HTML pages - goes beyond capabilities of standard AMOL record Need to provide easier access for users New cross community projects require interoperable metadata standards for cross domain searching Strong move in Australia towards Dublin Core based metadata schemas driven by government Strong move towards interpretation of objects through stories Search Architecture and extended AMOL metadata standard

73  Case Study AMOL (5)   NEW AMOL search/ system architecture
User queries search engine and gets records delivered to web browser Remote web server Providing dynamic access to ODBC databases Legacy databases  AV resources Textual resources Information mapped to DC based metadata plus index text, images AMOL index server

74 Case Study AMOL (6) Future Directions
Implementation of RDF for dynamically served databases and text style resources Consensus of community: Metadata Forum Further education of users: Metadata Workshops Creation of multi-type metadata schema based on Dublin Core Creation of mapping tools for easier database implementation

75 Case Study AMOL (7) Recommendations Biggest Problem still remaining:
Prepare good user guides Run workshops and educate museum professionals Get consensus from community Plan with interoperability in mind Evaluate tools and plan for future additions Biggest Problem still remaining: what is the benefit to the individual institution other than being interoperable for networked resources

76 Dublin Core for Masses?

77 Dublin Core for the masses
Why Dublin Core hasn’t hit the consumer market yet No killer application Lack of standardisation No support in public search engines No support in mass market applications Non transparent applications Inefficient handling in HTML

78 Further Information Projects Official Dublin Core web site Mailing lists Dublin Core Implementors workgroup Mailing list

79

80 For Machine Communication we need..
Semantic Interoperability Standardisation of content “Let’s talk Resource Description” “Creator, Publisher..,” Structural Interoperability Standardisation of form “Lets use MICI” “Field # 1 Element Name Syntactic Interoperability Standardisation of expression “Here’s how to say it in HTML” “<Meta name= Element Name= “….”>”


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