Presentation on theme: "Publication costs are research costs Robert Terry Senior Policy Adviser The Wellcome Trust"— Presentation transcript:
Publication costs are research costs Robert Terry Senior Policy Adviser The Wellcome Trust firstname.lastname@example.org
Supports more than 5,000 researchers at 400 locations in 42 different countries Funding major initiatives in public engagement with science and SciArt projects The UKs leading supporter of research into the History of Medicine Planned expenditure in 2002/03 of c £500 million One of the worlds largest medical research charities
The present Clinical and Experimental Immunology Journal of Immunology
Funded by the Wellcome Trust ……and this is why it matters
Why should open access publication be important to research funders? l Just funding the research is a job only part done – a fundamental part of their mission is to ensure the widest possible dissemination and unrestricted access to that research. l Web developments have created a new publishing model - not fully realised whilst access mediated through subscriptions and bundle deals. 90% of NHS-funded research available online full text 30% immediately available to public Only 40% immediately available to NHS staff
Shouldnt those who pay for the research be able to read it? l Over 90% of research funded in UK universities is public money from government, research councils and charities (17%)..Speak to people in the medical profession, and they will say the last thing they want are people who may have illnesses reading this information, marching into surgeries and asking things. We need to be careful with this very, very high-level information. Oral evidence to House of Commons inquiry, March 1st 2004, John Jarvis (Managing) Director, Wiley Europe)
Economic analysis of scientific research publishing http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/ scipubreport
Major concerns l subscription charge increases: 200% in last ten years - pressure on library budgets, reduction in number of subscriptions l publisher retention of copyright and therefore control l excessive profits: 35%+ margins l restrictive online access - the bundle deal
The economic cycle of scientific publishing Free Publishers Libraries Researchers Shareholder s & Societies Public funders & HEFCE £ Profit Free £ ££
Why dont researchers know or care? Free Publishers Libraries Researchers Shareholder s & Societies Public funders & HEFCE £ Profit Free £ ££ Funders mission?
Alternative model - open access l The copyright holder(s) must grant to the public a free, irrevocable, perpetual license to use, copy, distribute and make derivative works, in any medium for any purpose. l A digital copy must be deposited in an open public archival repository (for example US National Library of Medicine's PubMed Central).
Early days but - open access increases impact The mean number of citations to offline articles is 2.74, and the mean number of citations to online articles is 7.03, an increase of 157%. […a clear correlation between the number of times an article is cited and the probability that the article is online. More highly cited articles, and more recent articles, are significantly more likely to be online, in computer science.] Steve Lawrence, NEC Research Institute, Nature 411, 521 (2001)
What will it cost? Costs and business models in scientific research publishing http://www.wellcome.ac.uk/ publications
Whole system savings of 30% ? Estimated costs per article: $2,750 subscription $1,950 open access Submission fee $175 publication drops to $550 Charges of $10,000++ include contribution of funds to overheads, surplus or profit
What will it cost funders? Trust estimates: 1 – 2% of research budget
Funder initiatives l Leadership - demonstrate engagement with issues, join with other research funders, raise awareness in research community l Fund - cost of publication (marginal to research costs) l Copyright - encourage (and eventually enforce) author retention (involve publishers and IPR lawyers) l Repository - establish open access repositories and self- archiving (at what point mandatory?) l Evaluation - recognise intrinsic value of content of paper rather than title of journal l Digitization - of existing titles Greater accessibility = greater impact of research
The future? l More of the same? - unlikely l Increased use of repositories and self-archiving - likely l More support from funders? - very likely e.g.Howard Hughes, Max Planck, CNRS, WHO.....NIH(?) l Tipping point? l UK Parliament S&T Committee Inquiry
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