Presentation on theme: "1 Thesauri, Controlled Terminologies, and other solutions Paul Miller (UKOLN) & Matthew Stiff (mda)"— Presentation transcript:
1 Thesauri, Controlled Terminologies, and other solutions Paul Miller (UKOLN) & Matthew Stiff (mda)
2 Outline Making words more effective... –Introducing Controlled Terminology –Introducing Thesauri From micro to macro –Localised vocabularies –Going online... Issues... –...for Users –...for Creators
3 The need for control... European Community E.E.C. Common Market European Union !
4 Without control... Users are –incorrectly utilising search terms –failing to find significant resources –suffering from information overload –almost as well using Alta Vista Creators are –cataloguing inconsistently –unable to convey hierarchical concepts –Scotland is in United Kingdom is in Europe is in... –perpetuating localised terminology –unable to assess, let alone undertake, integration projects.
5 With control... Users might –gain more effective access to a resource –gain far more effective access across resources –reduce the number of false hits –find what they are looking for –even learn to think and express themselves in a structured manner. Creators might –produce more valuable resources –convey complex semantic and structural concepts –move towards disciplinary, national, international or global terminologies –effectively integrate both new and existing resources.
6 Controlled Vocabulary European Union E.E.C. Common Market European Community... Etc. With a controlled vocabulary, one or more of these terms might be permitted. Use of the others for record creation or retrieval would be rejected by the system.
7 Thesaurus-based Control European Union [preferred term] E.E.C. [synonym] Common Market [synonym] European Community [synonym]... Etc. [synonyms] In a thesaurus, all of the terms might be considered equally valid, with one identified as the preferred term and the others as synonyms But... Are they really synonymous...?
8 Exerting Control Controlled vocabularies –apparently simple Alphanumeric classification schema –Dewey and Universal Decimal Classifications, etc. –Have much in common with thesauri and controlled vocabularies. –Discussed in more detail by DESIRE http://www.ub2.lu.se/desire/radar/reports/D3.2.3/ These, and thesauri, refine meaning.
9 Thesauri A traditional thesaurus defines synonyms and, perhaps, antonyms for terms within a given language. E.g. –workshop atelier, factory, mill, plant, shop, studio, workroom...or... ? class, discussion group, seminar, study group.
10 Thesauri in Information Retrieval In the context of information retrieval, thesauri do more, facilitating the creation of hierarchies of meaning...
11 Hierarchies of Meaning Glass Beer Glass Wine Glass Red wine glass White wine glass
12 Thesaurus Components Most thesauri are constructed in a standard form, as defined by ISO 2788 and various national standards. –ISO 5964 extends discussion to multilingual issues Four basic relationships are fundamental in thesaurus construction and use... –Equivalence (preferred and non-preferred terms) –Hierarchy (glass is broader than wine glass) –Association (establishes non-hierarchical relationships) –Scope notes (provide guidance and clarification)
18 If there were more time… Grouping Terms… Facet indicators… Homonyms… And lots more!
19 Working with the tools Thesauri, controlled vocabulary lists, etc, are all useful, but they –often rely upon both cataloguers and users having direct access to these usually weighty tomes –require an awareness of cataloguing issues and practice to be used most effectively –have predominantly developed within –– rather than between –– communities, regions, etc. –rapidly become destabilised as distributed users add new terms in a non–complimentary fashion
20 Effective distributed thesauri  In order for thesauri to be effective in the online environment, research and good practice need to address; –mapping between existing thesauri –technical mapping –semantic mapping are E.E.C. and Common Market synonymous? –restructuring one or both where necessary/ possible –inter–disciplinary mapping the God Problem –addressing legacy data
21 Effective distributed thesauri  –delivery of training to remote cataloguers –providing online access to more existing thesauri –development of cataloguing tools –capable of accessing various remote thesauri and selecting terms in an intuitive, timely, fashion Nordic Metadata Project Dublin Core tool –raising the profile of thesauri as A Good Thing! –Development of user interface tools –capable of integrating various remote thesauri into the search process without slowing it intolerably, losing contextual awareness or subjecting the browser to information overload.